Complication to larynx from prolonged endotracheal intubation are all, except:
A. Immediate complications of intubation are:
a. Tube displacement leading to hypoxia.
b. Reflex disturbances leading to cardiac arrhythmias and laryngospasm.
c. Injury to lips, gums, teeth, pharynx, epiglottis.
d. Laryngeal injury by cuff leading to ulceration & necrosis.
B. Postoperative complications:
a. Sore throat.
b. Laryngeal edema (usually present after 1 to 2 hours).
c. Surgical emphysema.
d. Laryngeal nerve palsies.
C. Delayed complications:
a. Vocal cord granuloma.
b. Tracheal and laryngeal stenosis.
c. Laryngeal and tracheal web.
d. Tracheal collapse
Pressure necrosis leading to ulceration & finally granulosa and stenosis usually occur after prolonged intubation but laryngeal nerve palsies can occur even with intubation for smallest period.