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National population policy


A new National Population Policy has been approved by the Cabinet in its meeting held on 15th February 2000. The Policy aims at the following objectives: -
  1. Short term:
     
    The immediate objective of the National Population Policy is to address the unmet needs of contraception, health infrastructure, and health personnel and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care.
  2. Medium term:
     
    The medium term objective is to bring the total fertility rates to replacement level by 2010, through vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies.
  3. Long term:
     
    The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045, at a level consistent with the requirements of sustainable economic growth, social development and environmental protection. The policy states the following National Socio-Demographic Goals to be achieved by 2010:
    1. Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
    2. Make school education up to age 14 free and compulsory, and reduce dropouts at primary and secondary levels to below 20 percent for both boys and girls.
    3. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000.
    4. Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
    5. Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
    6. Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
    7. Achieve 80 percent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons.
    8. Achieve universal access to information / counseling, and services for fertility regulation and contraception with a wide   basket of choices.
    9. Achieve 100 percent registration of births, deaths, marriage and pregnancy.
    10. Contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and promote greater integration between the management of reproductive tract infections (RTI), and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the National AIDS Control Organization.
      (xyz) Prevent and control communicable diseases.
    11. Integrate Indian System of Medicine (ISM) in the provision of reproductive and child health services, and in reaching out to households.
    12. Promote vigorously the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of TFR.
    13. Bring about convergence in implementation of related social sector programs so that family welfare becomes a people centered programme.

National health policy -2002

  1. Please Remember :-
    Goals to be achieved by 2000-2015
    1. Eradicate Polio and Yaws………………………………………………………………………………………. 2005
    2. Eliminate Leprosy…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2005
    3. Achieve Zero level growth of HIV/AIDS ……………………………………………………………….  2007
    4. Eliminate Kala Azar ………………………………………………………………………………………………  2010
    5. Reduce Mortality by 50% on account of TB, Malaria and Other Vector and Water Borne diseases…………………………………………. ..              2010
    6. Reduce Prevalence of Blindness to 0.5% ……………………………………………………………… 2010
    7. Reduce IMR to 30/1000 And MMR to 100/Lakh …………………………………………………..               2010
    8. Improve nutrition and reduce proportion of LBW Babies from 30% to 10%.............. 2010
    9. Increase utilization of public health facilities from current Level of <20 to >75% ….    2010
    10. Increase health expenditure by Government as a % of GDP from the existing 0.9 % to 2.0% …………………………………………………………… 2010
    11. Increase share of Central grants to Constitute at least 25% of total health spending …..…………………………………………………………… 2010
    12. Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis ……………………………………………………………………………..       2015
  1. Please remember
    1. GAVI, global alliance for vaccination and immunisation is presently funding for HBV vaccination to be introduced in a pleased manner in nation immunisation programme in India in 32 districts of India.
      GAVI is a NGO of computer tycoon bill gates & Melinda Gates.
    2. IPPI , total cases in India till December 2004 148 , Last case detected in Nasik district of Maharastra.
      Slogan “NOW OR NEVER STOP POLIO FOR EVER”. The funding of the programme is by ROTRAIN.
  2. Please remember for exams
    It has been found that every year at least 3 questions are based on the acts related to health for reference here are the important ones,

Millennium Development Goal Indicators

 
UN declaration by member states in September, 2000 set a date of 2015 to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) viz.
  1. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Indicator 4: Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age
    5: Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption.
  2. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
  3. Goal 3: Promote gender equality
  4. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
    Indicator 13: Under 5 mortality rate
    14: Infant mortality rate
    15: Proportion of I year old children immunized against measles
  5. Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    Indicator 16: maternal mortality ratio
    17: proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
  6. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
    Indicator 18: HIV prevalence among young people aged 15-24 years
    19: Condom use rate and contraceptive prevalence
    20: Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS
    Indicator 21: Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
    22: Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures.           
    23: Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis.
    24: Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course Chemotherapy (DOTS)
  7. Goal 7: Ensure environmental stability.
    Indicator 29: Proportion of population using solid fuel
    30: Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source,urban and rural
    31: proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation.
  8. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
    Indicator 46: Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis.

Important legistalation related to health in india

  1. Indian medical council act 1956 &  2002 regulations
  2. Indian nursing act 1947
  3. Dentist act 1948
  4. The registration of birt and death act ,1969
  5. The census act , 1948
  6. Epidemic act , 1897
  7. Transplantation of human organ act ,1994
  8. Prevention of food adulteration act , 1954
  9. Essential commodity act ,1955
  10. International health regulation act , 1955
  11. MTP act , 1971
  12. Maternity benefit act 1961
  13. Dowry prohibition act , 1961
  14. Immoral traffic act , 1956
  15. Pre natal diagnostic act , 1994
  16. IMS act ,1992
  17. Child labour act , 1986
  18. The person with disability act , 1995
  19. Mental health act,1987
  20. Drug act 1948
  21. Minimum wage act,1948
  22. ESI act 1948
  23. Factory act 1948
  24. Environment protection act 1986
  25. Bio medical waste management act 1998

ROME Scheme


The Reorientation of Medical Education scheme was launched in 1975 to determine the stepsneeded to reorient medical education in accordance with national needs and priorities.
 

Health Planning & Management

  1. Modern Management methods:
    1. Methods and Techniques based on Behavioral sciences:
      1. Organizational Design  
      2. Personal Management
      3. Communication                                       
      4. Information systems
      5. Management by objectives
    2. Quantitative methods:
      1. Cost-benefit analysis                                    
      2. Cost-effective analysis
      3. Cost accounting                            
      4. Input-output analysis
      5. Model                                          
      6. Systems analysis
      7. Network Analysis
    3. PERT: Programme Evaluation and Review Technique - basically deals with constructing an arrow diagram of logical sequence and knowing about each and every sequence or pathway.
    4. CPM: Critical Pathway Method - The longest path in the network is called the critical path.
    5. PPBS: Planning-Programming-Budgeting System - objective related activities and programmes.
    6. Work Sampling: Systematic observation and recording of activities of one or more individuals, carried out at pre-determined intervals.
    7. Decision Making: Akin to differential diagnosis in Medicine.
  2. Manager’s Role or functions:
     
    Traditionally Mangers function has been summarized as
    P – planning   O – organizing
    S – staffing    D – directing
    Co – coordinating R – reporting
    B - budgeting
  1. Sources of power for manager:
    1. Legitimate - because of the hierarchical structure in an organization
    2. Reward & Punishment - because of the control over both.
    3. Referent - because of the technical qualification and experience.
  1. Some important definitions to be mugged up:
    1. An objective is a planned end point of all activities; it may or may not be achieved.(AI;09)
    2. Target often refers to discrete activity that has to be achieved within a given time frame. These are small measurable component of the entire goal. They permit the concept of degree of achievement.
    3. Goal is define as the ultimate desired state towards which objectives and resources are directed. Goals are not constrained by time or the existing resources nor are they necessarily attainable.
    4. Mission in turn refers to attainment of a certain goal within a stipulated time period with added impetus to the program wherein all resources and activities are to be utilized to its fullest extent to achieve the desired result. Lot of attention is also given to the supervisory and evaluation aspect; in a nutshell it is the mode in which we function to attain the target.
    5. Attitudes are acquired characteristics of an individual. They are more or less permanent ways of behaving. Attitudes are not learnt from books, they are acquired by social interaction, e.g., attitude towards persons, things, situations and issues. Once formed attitudes are difficult to change. (AIIMS May’09)
    6. Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition Values are considered subjective, vary across people and cultures and are in many ways aligned with belief and belief systems. Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (religious, political) values, social values, and aesthetic values. It is debated whether some values are intrinsic.
  • "Values are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be. They involve what is important to us. Values are applied appropriately when they are applied in the right area. For example, it would be appropriate to apply religious values in times of happiness as well as in times of despair. "A way of measuring what people value is to ask them what their goals are.
  • Personal values developed very early in life may be resistant to change. They may be derived from those of particular groups or systems, such as culture, religion, and political party. However, personal values are not universal; one's family, nation, generation and historical environment help determine one's personal values.
    Values are those things that really matter to each of us ... the ideas and beliefs we hold as special. or premise to be true. Beliefs are permanent, stable and almost unchanging.
  • Beliefs are the assumptions we make about ourselves, about others in the world and about how we expect things to be. Beliefs are also how we think things really are.
  • "Belief"  refers to the attitude we have, roughly, whenever we take something to be the case or regard it as true. To believe something, in this sense, needn't involve actively reflecting on it.
  • The relationship between belief and knowledge is subtle. Believers in a claim typically say that they know that claim. For instance, those who believe that the Sun is a god will often report that they know that the Sun is a god. However, the terms belief and knowledge are used differently. It is a telling point concerning the nature of belief that most people distinguish between what they know and what they believe, even though they consider both kinds of statements to be true.




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