Coupon Accepted Successfully!


National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme

(Malaria, kala azar, japanese encephalitis, dengue, filariasis)
Nvbdcp launched by the goi in the year 2003-04 is one of the most comprehensive and multifaceted public health activities in the country, now under the umbrella of nrhm. In the 2007 chikungunia & chikungunia hemorrhagic fever were also added to the program. The program is 100% centrally assisted in northeastern regions.
6 (A). National anti-malaria programme (NAMP)
Global scenario-
  1. Malaria is endemic in some 90 countries in Asia, Africa, Oceania, and S. America.
  2. 300-500 million are infected each year (90% in Africa)
  3. 1.1-2.7 million deaths annually
Indian scenario-
  1. 75 million cases annually, 0.8 million deaths annually in 1953
  2. Now stabilized at 2-2.5 million cases with approximately 3000 deaths annually
  3. P. falciparum cases on the rise
  4. Resistance to both insecticides and anti-malarial drugs on the rise
  5. API for the year 2004 was 0.34.
  6. P.vivax was the commonest (60-70%) parastite in the country, followed by P.falciparum (30-45%), P.malariae is rarely found in India while P.ovale is not reported in the country. But since 2010, falciparum cases have taken over vivax malaria to become the commonest parasite in the country.
History of Malaria control Programme in india
  1. 1953- NMCP launched. Main strategy was DDT spraying operations.
  2. 1958- NMEP launched. Was a failure due to administrative, technical and operational
  3. problems.
  4. 1977- Modified Plan of Operations started and area categorized into rural ( API < 2 and
  5. API >2) and urban.
  6. 1995- Malaria Action Plan started with malarial paradigms categorized into rural, tribal, border, project and urban areas.
    Action required in tribal areas: One link worker for every 2000 population to work as FTD & carry blood slides of his area to PHC or malaria clinic twicw a week; should also bring drugs and microslides for his area.
1997- Enhanced Malaria Control Project (World Bank sponsored)
Launched in 1997 for the 7 North-Eastern states to benefit 6 crore tribal population.                
  1. Components-
    Early Detection and Prompt Treatment – A link worker in high Pf areas for a population of 2000 is appointed by the panchayat and paid Rs 500 per month. He/she collects blood smears, provides presumptive t/t & forwards slide to the PHC. One microscope for every 30,000 population at PHC in rural areas & for 50,000 in urban areas. One FTD for every village. Newer drugs like Artemisinine derivatives have also been introduced in the program for management of severe & complicated malaria cases.
  2. Selective Vector Control – use of biolarvicides like bacillus thuringiensis H-14 in selected urban areas & alternative new generation safer insecticides like synthetic pyrethroids are also applied.
  3. Intersectoral coordination
  4. Management Information System (MIS) strengthening
  5. Personal protection measures
  6. Rapid response teams and epidemic preparedness
  7. Legislative measures
  8. Use of dip-stick method to detect P. falciparum cases
    Supply of permethrin coated mosquito nets
1999 – National Anti malaria program
2004 – National vector borne diseases control program
2005 – Intensified malaria control project                           
Urban Malaria Scheme (UMS)
Malaria in urban areas is an important and widespread public health problem in India. To assist the states in control of urban malaria, an UMS was launched in India during 1971-72. At present the scheme is functioning in 132 towns. Under the scheme malaria treatment is provided through agencies like hospitals, dispensaries and malaria clinics. Recurrent anti larval measures at weekly intervals with approved larvicides are undertaken to control vector mosquitoes. The center provides larvicides and pyrethrum extract and anti malarials to the UMS towns. Nineteen towns are under the EMCP where provision of enhanced inputs like microscopes and IEC material etc. are envisaged.
Modified Plan of Operation
  1. Elimination of malaria deaths
  2. Reduction of malaria morbidity
  3. Maintenance of the gains achieved so far by reducing transmission of malaria.
Malaria Drug Policy 2010
Note-Primaquine not to be given to pregnant women & infant
  • In severe and complicated malaria cases with P. falciparum infection (microscopically confirmed,) intravenous quinine is the drug of choice.  Intramuscular or intravenous chloroquine is not well tolerated by children and given only when quinine is not available.
Drug resistance
R1 = Ps for MP negative in 7th day after treatment & positive from l8th to 28th day
R2 = Ps for MP Positive on 7th day
R3 = Ps for MP positive in more than 75% on day 2
Treatment failure – a sexual parasite seen within 14 days of treatment.

Malaria wk-1- 7 May every year
Malaria endemicity: spleen rate or parasite rate in 2-10 yr old children
Hypoendemic : spleen/parasite rate < 10%
Mesoendemic : spleen/parasite rate – 11-50%
Hyperendemic : spleen/parasite rate – 50-75%
Holoendemic : spleen/parasite rate > 75%
(2) vector control
  • An. Culicifacies – Rural
  • An. Stephensi – Urban + Desert – breeds in wells, cistems, overhead tanks, fountains
  • An. Fluviatilis – foothill – breeds in moving water
  • An. Sundaicus – breeds in brackishwater.
Candidate Malaria vaccines: Asexual blood stage vaccine; Transmission blocking vaccine-arrest development in vector – pfs25; synthetic cocktail vaccine-spf66:
Maximum No. Of cases in Orissa

Roll Back Malaria: is a global partnership founded in 1998 by the WHO, UNDP, UNICEF & the World bank with the aim to halve the world’s malaria burden by 2010.

Please remember now there is an integrated programme known as national programme for control of vector born diseases that includes malaria , filaria, kalazar, je and dengue ,  Chikungunya (as per GOI 2004)
6 (B). National filaria control programme 1955
Burden of diseases
  1. isease: endemic in 19 states and Uts
  2. Population at risk: 450 million;
  3. 29 million cases; 22 million Mf carriers
  4. Brugia malayi restricted to 6 states: Bihar, TN, Orissa, Kerala, UP, Gujarat, and AP
  5. National health policy: Elimination of lymphatic tilariasis by 2015
  6. Programme: limited to urban areas. Extended to rural areas since 1994.
  1. Reduction of problem in unsurveyed areas.
  2. Control in urban areas through recurrent anti larval and anti parasite measures.
  1. Vector control through antilarval application at wkly intervals
  2. Biological control through larvivorous fishes.
  3. Environmental engineering
  4. Anti parasitic measure – diagnosis and treatment with DEC 6mg/Kg for 12 days.   Mass treatment medicated salt-1-4g of DEC/Kg of salt; DEC + Albendazole or DEC + lvermectin
  5. IEC
    Infrastructure: Filaria control units, Filaria clinics; Filaria survey units.
6 (C). Kala azar control programme
Goal of eradication by 2010 AD
Strategy for control:
  1. Interruption of transmission by reducing vector population through indoor residual insecticide-DDT-is the choice insecticide: 2 rounds (Feb-Mar & May-June) in human dwellings, animal shelters, up to a height of 6 feet from floor
  2. Early diagnosis and complete treatment diagnosis an basis of Cl/f & lab.  Tests. Na. Antimony stibogluconate 20mg/Kg of 20 days.  Second line trt. Pentamidien 3 mg/Kg IV for 10 days.
  3. Health education-Protective measures-bed nets; closing cracks and crevices.

6 (D). Japanese encephalitis programme
NAMP is monitoring JE situation.
Population at risk – 160 million in 26 states and Uts. (5 worst affected states AP, WP, UP, Karnataka, and Assam)


  1. Strengthening early diagnosis and case management
  2. IEC for community awareness.
  3. Vector control measures – fogging during outbreaks; space sprays in animal dwelling s and anti larval operations
  4. Development of safe vaccine
  5. Sentinel surveillance in endemic and adjoining areas
6 (E). Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever
Epidemic in 1996 in Delhi claimed 440 lives and over 10,000 cases.

Reasons for resurgence:
  1. Unplanned and uncontrolled urbanization
  2. Inadequate waste management and water supply
  3. Increased distribution and densities of vector mosquitoes
  4. Lack of effective mosquito control
  5. Increased spread of dengue viruses
  6. Deterioration of public health
NAMP is monitoring Dengue situation.

  1. Surveillance for cases and outbreaks.
  2. Strengthening early diagnosis and case management
  3. Vector control measures – through community participation and social mobilization.  IEC for community awareness

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name