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Microbiology

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Clinical/Applied Microbiology

Question
25 out of 45
 

Effective in diagnosing plasma sterilization



A Clostridium tetani

B Bacillus subtilis

C Bacillus stearothermophilus

D Bacillus pumilus

Ans. C Bacillus stearothermophilus

Bacillus stearothermophilus

a. Plasma sterilization is a type of low-temperature sterilization. Other examples of low-temperature sterilization include humidified ethylene oxide and steam formaldehyde.

b. Hydrogen peroxide has been shown to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with confirmed virucidal, bactericidal, fungicidal, mycobactericidal, and sporicidal activity.

c. When in the gas phase, hydrogen peroxide (also known as VHP for Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide) demonstrates significantly greater antimicrobial efficacy than in the liquid form.

d. There are a number of new systems recently developed that all use hydrogen peroxide gas for low temperature sterilization.

e. These can be considered as those using plasma as part of the process and those that only use hydrogen peroxide gas.

f. All these systems expose loads to be sterilized under vacuum to the H2O2 gas, in the presence or absence of plasma.

g. A plasma is essentially an excited gas and is produced by adding energy (in the form of heat or an electromagnetic field).

h. These systems have a rapid cycle time (<1 hour) and provide sterile instruments for immediate use or sterile storage (with no extended aeration requirements as traditionally needed with ethylene oxide and formaldehyde).

i. There are, however, some limitations in that instruments should be provided dry for sterilization, the process can not be used for liquids and cellulose-based materials (such as paper).

j. This system is particularly intended for the cleaned, rinsed, and dried, reusable heat sensitive metal and non-metal medical devices used in healthcare facilities.

Nosocomial Infection/Hospital Acquired Infection ­

a. Acquired during the course of hospitalization.

b. Most infections that become manifest after 48 hours are considered to be nosocomial

c. Should not be present at the time of admission

d. May manifest even after discharge of patient.

e. Source is exogenous (may be hospital ecosystem)

f. They may be iatrogenic (induced during diagnostic/therapeutic intervention) or opportunistic.

g. In recent years gram negative enteric bacilli have become the most important group of hospital pathogens.

h. Most common type of nosocomial infection are UTI, usually a/w catheterization and urological procedures. (Klebsiella is the m/c pathogen involved)

i. Staph. aureus is the commonest organism causing hospital acquired wound infections/ surgical wounds.

j. Major organisms of concern in nosocomial pneumonia are gram-ve aerobic bacteria

Extra Edge:

Grouping of recommended antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting.

Clinical/Applied Microbiology Flashcard List

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