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  1. Mucosa
    1. Epithelium : Stratified squamous
    2. Lamina Propria
      Superficial Reinke’s space (soft gelatin, loose fibrous substance)
      Intermediate (elastic fibres)
      Deep (collagenous fibres)
      Reinke’s layer: Vibrates the most
  2. Muscle (vocalis) – Vocalis is medial pact of thyroarytenoid muscle
    Vocal ligament is formed by Intermediate and the Deep layers
  • Age changes In the vocal folds:
    At birth the vocal folds do not have the intermediate and the deep layer of the lamina propria/ vocal ligament. 1-4 years: Immature vocal ligaments is formed.
    Adolescence: the 3- layered structure of the lamina propria is visible.
With age:
  1. The superficial layer of the lamina propria becomes oedematous and thicker
  2. Elastic fibres in the Intermediate layer- atrophy
  3. Collagenous fibres of the deep layer become denser
  4. Vocalis muscle atrophy
  5. Lymphatic drainage of the larynx:
    -Above the glottis: upper deep cervical
    Below the glottis: lower deep cervical through the pre-laryngeal and pretracheal lymph nodes

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