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Actions of Insulin

  1. Adipose tissue: Increased glucose entry via GLUT 4 (rapid action), Increased fatty acid synthesis, Increased glycerol phosphate synthesis, Increased triglyceride deposition, Activation of lipoprotein lipase, Inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase, Increased K+ uptake (rapid action)
  2. Muscle : Increased glucose entry via GLUT 4 (rapid action),  Increased glycogen synthesis Increased amino acid uptake,  Increased protein synthesis in ribosomes,  Decreased release of gluconeogenic amino acids,  Increased ketone uptake,  Increased K+ uptake (rapid action)
  3. Liver :  Decreased ketogenesis,  Increased protein synthesis,  Increased lipid synthesis,  increased glucose uptake by Glucokinase stimulation. Decreased glucose output due to decreased gluconeogenesis, increased glycogen synthesis, increased glycolysis.
  4. ADIPOKINES: are cytokines secreted by adipose tissue.

Agent

Effect on Insulin Resistance

Leptin

Decreases

TNF α

Increases

Adiponectin

Decreases

Resistin

Increases

Chemerin

Decreases





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