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Magnesium disorders

Basic physiology

Normal serum magnesium = 1.5 to 2.3 mg%

Extra Edge:

  1. Serum Ca and Serum Mg level always go parallel in the body.
  2. The notable exceptions are CRF (Hypocalcemia and Hypermagnesemia), Gitelman syndome (Normocalcemia and hypomagnesemia)
  3. Magnesium is required for PTH secretion and for PTH action (Ref. Oxford Hand book of medicine, 7th ed., Pg-206)


Causes of hypomagnesemia

  1. Reduce intake especially common in alcoholic patient and on TPN
  2. GI losses - chronic diarrhea
  3. Kidney loss – diuretics, Gitelman syndrome.
  4. Acute pancreatitis
  5. Drugs - Foscarnet (It is an anti herpes group of drug used generally in zoster ophthalmitis).

Extra Edge: The clinical feature and ECG finding of hypomagnesemia are same as of hypocalcemia


Treatment of hypomagnesemia = Replacement



  1. ARF, CRF         
  2. Addison disease   
  3. Magnesium containing drugs.          
  4. Hemolysis

Clinical features. Occur due to vasodilatation and neuromuscular blockage. There is paradoxical Bradycardia, Hypotension, Altered sensorium, respiratory depression.


  1. Injection calcium gluconate for heart (LQ 2012)
  2. Diuretics (Frusemide)
  3. Dialysis

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