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Medical entomology

  1. Arthropod-borne disease Q

S.No.

Arthropod

Diseases transmitted

1

Mosquito

a.  Anopheles

b.  Culex

 

c.  Aedes

 

d.  Mansonoides

 

Malaria, filaria.

Bancroftian filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, viral arthritis

Yellow fever, dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever, Chikungunia fever, Chikungunia haemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever, filaria

Malayan filariasis, Chikungunia fever

2

Housefly

Typhoid & paratyphoid fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, gastro-enteritis, amoebiasis, helminthic infestation, poliomyelitis, conjunctivitis, trachoma, anthrax, yaws etc. 

3

Sand fly

Kala-azar, oriental sore, sand fly fever and oraya fever

4

Tsetse fly

Sleeping sickness

5

Louse

Epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, trench fever & pediculosis

6

Rat flea

Bubonic plague, endemic typhus, chiggerosis, Hymenolepis diminuta

7

Black fly

Onchocerciasis

8

Reduviid bug

Chagas disease

9

Hard tick

Tick typhus, viral encephalitis, viral fever, viral hemorrhagic fever e.g. Kyasanur forest disease, tularemia, tick paralysis, human Babesiosis.

10

Soft tick

Q fever, relapsing fever

11

Trombucid mite

Scrub typhus, rickettsial pox

12

Cyclops

Guinea worm diseases, fish tape worm


Extrinsic Incubation period:
time for development of disease agent in arthropod host.

  1. Transmission of arthropod borne disease
     
     

Direct contact

Directly transferred

Pediculosis, scabies

Mechanical

 

Diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid, food poisoning & trachoma

Biological

 

 

Propagative

Disease agent only multiplies

Plague bacilli in rat flea Q

Cyclo-propagative

Cyclic change and multiplication

Malaria parasite in anopheles mosquito

Cyclo-developmental

Only cyclic change

Filarial parasite in culex mosquito, guinea worm embryo in Cyclops.

  1. Insecticides classification
     
     

Contact poison

Natural

Pyrethrum, rotenone, mineral oil

Synthetic

 

1.organo-chlorine

DDT, BHC, Methoxychlor, lindane, chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin

2. Organo-phosphorus

Chlorothion, diazinon, dioxathion, malathion, fenthion, methyl parathion, parathion, abate, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion

3. Carbamates

Carbaryl, dimetilan, propoxur

Stomach poison

Paris green, sodium fluoride

Fumigants

Hydrogen cyanide, methyl bromide

 
  1. Mosquito control
    1. Anti-larval:
      1. mineral oil, Paris green, fenthion, chlorpyrifos and abate. (AIIMS Nov’08).
      2. Biological control: Gambusia affinis, Lebistes reticulates.
    2. Anti-adult:
      1. Residual spray: DDT (AIIMS Nov’08)
      2. Space spray: pyrethrum
      3. ULV (ultra low volume) space spray: Malathion & fenitrothion.

Toxicant

DDT

Lindane

Malathion

OMS-33

Average duration of effectiveness (months)

6-12

3

3

3

 
  1. Mosquito net: size should not exceed 0.0475 inch.
  2. Rodenticide: barium carbonate, zinc phosphide,
    1. Multi-dose poison: warfarin, diphacinone, coumafuryl, pindone.
    2. Fumigation: calcium cyanide, calcium disulphide, methyl bromide, sulphur dioxide.​




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