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Radiations

  1. Sources of radiation exposure
    1. Natural
      1. Cosmic Rays
      2. Environmental:
        1. Terrestrial
        2. Atmospheric
      3. Internal:
        1. Potassium-40
        2. Carbon-14
    2. Man made
      1. Medical & Dental: X rays, radioisotopes
      2. Occupational exposure
      3. Nuclear: radioactive fallout
      4. Miscellaneous: TV sets, radioactive dial watches, isotope tagged products, luminous markers
  2. Biological effects of Radiation
    1. Somatic
      1. Immediate
        1. Radiation Sickness
        2. Acute radiation syndrome
      2. Delayed
        1. Leukemia
        2. Carcinogenesis
        3. Fetal developmental anomalies
        4. Shortening of life
    2. ​​Genetic
      1. Chromosome mutations
      2. Point mutations
  3. ​​Radiation Protection
    1. Avoid unnecessary exposure particularly in children & preg women.
    2. Adequate control & surveillance of X-ray installations, protection of workers, improvement in techniques leading to dose reductions.
    3. Protective Measures: Use of lead sheilds & lead rubber apron min. 0.5mm thickness, use of film badge or dosimeter for accumulated exposure.
    4. Periodic medical examination.
  4. Types of radiation:

               
Radiation Units:

Unit of activity: Bq – 1 Bq = 27 picocuries

  1. Potency of radiation:
    1. Roentgen: unit of exposure, No. of ions produced in 1 ml of air.
    2. Rad: Unit of absorbed dose. Amount of energy absorbed per gm of tissue or material
    3. 1 m rad = 0.001 rad
    4. Rem: product of absorbed dose and modifying factors. Indicates degree of potential danger to health.
​​
  1. 400 – 500 Roentegen fatal in 50% cases and 600 – 700 Roentegen fatal in 100% cases
    1. RAD = Adsorbed dose of radiation
    2. REM = product of adsorbed and modifying factor
    3. Roentgen = Amount reaching to a point source via air




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