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  1. Passive immunization
    Passive immunization refers to the injection of specific protective antibodies (hyper immune serum, immune serum globulin, etc.) to provide immediate protection to an individual. Transplacental transfer is also an example of passive Immunization. Here, readymade antibodies are provided to an individual especially in an emergency when one cannot wait for the body to produce antibodies. Examples are diphtheria, tetanus, and rabies, etc.
  2. Active immunization
    In active immunization, a live/killed vaccine is injected and the body reacts by producing antibodies, which make the individual immune and protect against attack by infectious agents. Active immunity is also achieved after suffering from a disease like measles, chickenpox, etc. Active immunity is long lasting and more effective in preventing future disease. The only drawback is that it takes time for the body to produce antibodies and therefore active immunization is usually not useful in an emergency.
    1. Quarantine (40 day detention) is the restriction of activities of well persons (HEALTHY CONTACTS) or animals who have been exposed to a communicable disease or are traveling from a disease-endemic-zone to a non-diseased-area for a period of time equivalent to the LONGEST KNOWN INCUBATION PERIOD of that specific communicable disease. This is done to prevent contact with individuals who are not exposed to a communicable disease and to prevent transmission to an area free of disease.
      1. Modified quarantine refers to selective partial limitation of movement of contacts of communicable diseases to protect susceptible individuals from contracting disease. Exclusion of children with chickenpox and measles from regular school is
      2. an example.
      3. Isolation:- Separation, for the period of communicability of infected persons (CASES) or animals from others in and in such places and under such conditions, as to prevent or limit the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent from those infected to those who are susceptible, or who may spread the agents to others.
    2. Vaccine
      1. Live vaccine
        1. More potent - Larger Antigen dose All Antigen Components
        2. Durable immunity
        3. No boosters
        4. Usually single dose


  1. → BCG, Typhoral Plague
  2. → OPV, yellow fever, MMR
  1. Rubella Vaccine RA 27/3 vaccine
    1. Produced in human diploid fibroblast.
    2. Single dose 0.5ml.
    3. May provoke mild reactions like malaise, fever, mild rash and transient arthralgia but no serious disability.
    4. Vaccine induced immunity persists in most vaccines for 14-16 yrs and probably lifelong, no evidence Of 2nd dose to be administered.
    5. Infants < 1 yr should not be given vaccine.
    6. Pregnancy is contraindication.
      Recipients of the vaccine -advised not to conceive for the next 3 month.
  1. Some important facts about Vaccines and their Preservatives:
    1. BCG contains no preservative as these may hamper the viability of the bacilli. Hence, bacterial contamination may occur with repeated use. (AIIMS Nov’08)
      Therefore once constituted, vaccine should be used within 4 hours with the left over being discarded after the session.
    2. MMR, Measles, Influenza, Hep B, DTaP & HiB vaccines contain thiomersal or mercury containing preservatives.
    3. However, after some stray reports claiming increased incidence of autism in children (although none were proved on subsequent epidemiological studies) after administration of thiomersal containing MMR & measles vaccine, use of thiomersal as a preservative in vaccines is now very limited.
    4. Presently manufactured measles, MMR, OPV vaccines do not contain any preservative.
    5. But OPV does contain trace amounts of neomycin & streptomycin. IPV contains neomycin, streptomycin & polymyxin B.
    6. Chickenpox vaccine contains neomycin & MMR also contains neomycin. DTaP i.e. DPT vaccine with acellular pertussis component is also devoid of thiomersal.
  2. ICD 10 - International Classification of diseases
    1. Revised every 10 yrs.
    2. Latest revision- 10th - 1st January 1993.
    3. Sixth revision- 1948- covers morbidity from illness and injury.
    4. 21 major chapters.
    5. The first character of icd-1 0 code is a letter and each letter is associated with a particular chapter except letter d- chapter ii and iii and h- chapter vii and viii.
    6. Chapter i, ii, xix, xx - use more than one letter in the first position of their codes.
    7. Each chapter - 3 coding.
    8. Fourth numeric character after a decimal point allowing upto 10 subcategories- not man$1atory to report.
    9. Icd- l0- 3 volumes.
    10. Ultimate purpose - to contribute uniform classification.

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