The fallopian tubes may be the site of inflammation, pregnancy, cysts or neoplasia. Inflammatory lesions and tubal ectopic pregnancies commonly present clinically with acute lower abdominal pain, mimicking, for example, acute appendicitis.
Loss of tubal patency is an important cause of female infertility.
Inflammation of the fallopian tube (salphigitis) is usually secondary to endometrial infection or the presence of an intra-uterine device; it may be acute or chronic.
Chlamydial infection is now an important cause of chronic inflammation and subsequent secondary infertility due to loss of tubal patency.
Anaerobic organisms, such as Bacteroides, are also important as causes of salphigitis, whereas gonococcal infection is uncommon.
Infection may be complicated by the accumulation of pus within the lumen of the tube (pyosalphynx).
Longstanding chronic inflammation may lead to distension of the tube, loss of mucosa and the accumulation of serous fluid within the lumen (hydrosalphynx).
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