Fluid therapy in a patient of shock should begin with:
a. No difference in overall mortality, length of stay, or incidence of pulmonary edema was noted in comparison of crystalloid to colloids in fluid resuscitation of critically-ill patients.
b. A significant survival advantage is seen in trauma patients in favor of crystalloid resuscitation.
d. The benefit of hypertonic saline solutions may be immunomodulatory, in addition to shifting of fluids from intracellular compartments.