Following are the trigger factors for atherosclerosis except: (AIPG 2011)
(Ref. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease 8th edition, page no 497 and Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 21st edition. Page no 202)
Trigger factors for atherosclerosis
a. HDL is good cholesterol and apo E helps in reverse cholesterol transport, the process by which excess cholesterol is returned from tissues to liver.
b. Alpha macroglobulin- reference- INTERNET-1979 Dec;34 (4):391-405. Soluble proteins in the human atherosclerotic plaque. With spectral reference to immunoglobulins, C3-complement component, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Hollander W, Colombo MA, Kirkpatrick B, Paddock J………………….
c. A number of soluble proteins contained in human aortic intimal tissue was extracted into buffered saline (pH 7.4) and identified and quantitated by immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion. The proteins included IgA, IgG, IgM, B1C (C3), alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrinogen, albumin, LDL, HDL, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-glycoprotein, transferrin and ceruloplasmin. The concentration of soluble proteins was significantly higher in the atherosclerotic intima than in the normal intima. The proteolytic inhibitors, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin, found in relatively high concentrations in the plaque, could enhance fibrosis of the lesion because of their known inhibitory effects on collagenase and elastase.
d. & D- C. Oxidized LDL and D. Homocystiene – reference – Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease 8th edition, page no.497, 498.