Following drugs are useful in Rx of macular edema except: (AIPG 2011)
Medications that cause macular edema include:
1. Tamoxifen; the hormone
2. Epinephrine also known
1. Pharmacologic therapies include locally administered agents, such as corticosteroids and VEGF antagonists, and systemically administered agents, such as ruboxistaurin..
2. Surgical approaches include pars plana vitrectomy
3. Diabetic macular edema is the most common cause of visual impairment in diabetic
4. Strict metabolic control, tight blood pressure control, laser photocoagulation, and vitrectomy remain the standard care for diabetic macular edima.
5. Focal/grid photocoagulation is the first-line therapeutic option.
6. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents result in short-term reduction of central macular thickness in patients with refractory diabetic macular edema and are effective adjunctive treatment to laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy.
7. Vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid with internal limiting membrane peeling seems to be effective in eyes with persistent diffuse diabetic macular edema, particularly in eyes with associated vitreomacular traction.