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Types of Psychiatric Illness

  1. Drunkenness:
    sec 85 IPC deals with criminal responsibility of intoxicated persons.
    An intoxicated person (voluntary drunkenness) is criminally responsible if he has intention or knowledge of committing a crime (sec 86 IPC).
    A person is not criminally responsible during:
    1. Post traumatic automatism
    2. Twilight
    3. Oneroid state
  2. Delirium:
    1. Lack of orientation in terms of time, place and person.
    2. Delusions and hallucinations are seen.
    3. Such persons are not responsible for their criminal acts.
    4. It occurs with metabolic diseases, drug intoxication, high fever, or cerebral neoplasm
  3. Delusion:
    1. It is a false belief in some thing which is not a fact and which persists even after its falsity has been clearly demonstrated.
    2. It is a disorder of Thought/ Cognition/
    3. Types:
      1. Delusion of Grandiosity or exaltation : a man imagines himself to be very rich while in reality he’s pauper.
      2. Delusion of Persecution : person believes that people, things events etc. refer to him in a special way.
      3. Delusion of Infidelity : a man imagines his wife to be unfaithful while in fact she is chaste.
      4. Nihilistic delusion : the person declares that he doesn’t exist or there is no world (seen in major depression). 
    4. Hallucination: is a false sense of perception without an external object or stimulus to produce it

      1. Visual: a person imagines being attacked by a lion when no lion exists.
      2. Auditory: a person hears voices when no voice is present.
      3. Olfactory: a person smells pleasant or unpleasant odor when none is present. Seen in temporal lobe epilepsy.
      4. Tactile: a person imagines rats and mice crawling into his bed. 
  4. Illusion:
    1. Is a false interpretation by the senses of an external object or stimulus which has a real existence.
    2. A sane person may experience illusion but is capable of correcting the false impression.
    3. An insane person continues to believe in the illusion even though the real facts are clearly pointed out. 
  5. Impulse:
    1. Is a sudden and irresistible force compelling a person to the conscious performance of an action without motive or thought.
    2. A sane person is capable of controlling an impulse but an insane person may do things on impulse.
    3. Types:
      1. Kleptomania – an irresistible desire to steal articles of little value.
      2. Pyromania – an irresistible desire to set fire to things.
      3. Mutilomania – an irresistible desire to mutilate animals.
      4. Dipsomania – an irresistible desire for alcoholic drinks at periodic intervals.
      5. Irresistible impulse test (New Hempshire test) : criminal responsibility and impulse disorder. 
  6. Obsession:
    1. in this a single idea, thought or emotion is constantly entertained by a person, which he
    2. recognises as irrational but persists inspite of all efforts to drive it from his mind.
    3. It is a disorder of content of thought.
  7. Phobia:
    It is an excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation.
    1. Agorophobia – open spaces
    2. Claustrophobia – closed spaces
    3. Acrophobia – heights
    4. Nyctophobia – darkness
    5. Mysophobia – dirt
  8. Lucid Interval:
    1. This is a period of insanity during which all the symptoms of insanity disappear completely.

    2. The individual is able to judge, acts soundly and becomes legally liable for his acts.

    3. If he commits an offence, he cannot be completely held responsible because it is difficult to know whether he was suffering from some mental abnormality at the time of committing the offence.

    4. Seen in Insanity, EDH, SDH

  9. Oneroid State:


    Is a state of mental confusion, amnesia, illusion and anxiety. It occurs in delirium and early schizophrenia.

  10. Psychopath:


    A person who is neither insane nor mentally defective, but fails to confer to normal standards of behaviour.

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