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  1. It receives arterial blood flow from three sources: inferior thyroid, esophageal branches from descending aorta, left gastric/celiac axis.
  2. The submucosa has a rich network of capillaries. Venous drainage is through three systems: the inferior thyroid, azygos/ hemiazygous venous system, and the left gastric vein.
  3. The lymphatic drainage of the esophagus is conducted by a vast network of vessels originating in the mucosal plexus which communicates with a submucosal plexus.
  4. These two then coalesce with lymph channels of the muscularis layer. Because of the rich and
  5. complex lymphatic drainage, fluids from any part of the esophagus can travel to any other portion
  6. of the esophagus. Therefore, when resection of the tumor is carried out, ample distance
  7. from the actual tumor (10 cm) must also be resected.
  8. The lymph channels eventually drain into a number of lymph nodes: internal jugular, cervical,
  9. supraclavicular, paratracheal, hilar, subcranial, paraesophageal, para-aortic, paracardial, lesser
  10. curvature, left gastric, and celiac. 
    1. Normal Histology
      1. The esophagus consists of three layers: mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis.
      2. The mucosa consists of epithelial lining containing nonkeratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium
      3. with a layer of basal and parabasal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma is derived from this layer.
      4. The sublayer, lamina propria, contains vessels, connective tissue, lymphatics,
      5. inflammatory cells and esophageal cardiac glands which are mucus secreting glands.
      6. Adenocarcinomas arise from these glands. Without the serosa covering, neoplasms that arise in the
      7. esophagus can spread unimpeded to other tissues 
    2. ​​​Esophageal Diverticula
      1. ​​True diverticula of GIT contain all layers of the intestinal tract wall while false diverticula (pseudodiverticula) occur when there is herniation of mucosa and submucosa through a defect in the muscular wall.

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