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Susceptibility to physical & chemical agents

  1. Heat: Enveloped viruses are heat labile as compared to non-enveloped viruses. Viral infectivity is generally destroyed by heating at 56°C with the exception of hepatitis B virus, papovaviruses, and scrapie agent.
  2. pH- Some viruses (e.g. enteroviruses) are resistant to acidic conditions. All viruses are destroyed by alkaline conditions.
  3. Ether susceptibility- Enveloped viruses are susceptible to ether while non-enveloped viruses are resistant
     
    Chlorine- Larger concentrations of chlorine are required to kill viruses than to destroy bacteria.  

Baltimore classification of viruses

  1. I: dsDNA viruses
  2. II: ssDNA viruses
  3. III: dsRNA viruses
  4. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses
  5. V: (-)ssRNA viruses
  6. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses (that replicate through a DNA intermediate)
  7. VII: dsDNA-RT viruses (that replicate through a single stranded RNA intermediate)
Families of viruses that infect humans

Nucleic acid core

Capsid symmetry

Enveloped/ naked

Physical type of nucleic acid

Virus family

DNA

Icosahedral

Naked

ss

ds circular

ds

Parvoviridae

Papovaviridae

Adenoviridae

Enveloped

ds circular

ds

Hepadnaviridae

Herpesviridae

Complex

Complex coat

Ds

Poxviridae

RNA

Icosahedral

Naked

ss

ss

ss

ds segmented

Picornaviridae

Astroviridae

Caliciviridae

Reoviridae

Enveloped

Ss

Togaviridae

Unknown or complex

Enveloped

ss

ss segmented

ss

ss diploid

Flaviviridae

Arenaviridae

Coronaviridae

Retroviridae

Helical

Enveloped

ss segmented

ss segmented

ss

ss

ss

Bunyaviridae

Orthomyxoviridae

Paramyxoviridae

Rhabdoviridae

Filoviridae






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