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Renal stones


-Composition and calculi incidence
  1. Calcium oxalate                                                               75%
    Spiculated/lamellated/mulberry stones)
  1. Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate/                     15%
    Laminated/ proteus induced/staghorn) 
  1. Calcium phosphate (laminated)                                         5%
  1. Uric acid                                                                          5%
  1. Cystine; xanthine; orotic acid; matrix                                 rare
    Mucoprotein or mucopolysacchride)    

Radiolucent renal calculi are:
  1. Uric acid stones
  2. Xanthine stones
  3. indinavir associated stones
  4. orotic acidurea
  5. Matrix (mucoprotein) stones
Cystine stones are radio-opaque due to presence of sulphur.

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