Medical and Surgical Complications in Pregnancy
HIV transmission in relation to pregnancy is maximum during (LQ)
|A||labour and delivery|
Labour and delivery
1. The maximum risk is at labour and delivery. A baby can become infected with HIV in the womb, during delivery or while breast-feeding.
2. If the mother does not receive treatment, 25 % of babies born to women with HIV will be infected by the virus.
3. With treatment that percentage can be reduced to less than 2 %. If no preventative steps are taken, the risk of HIV transmission during childbirth is estimated to be 10-20%.
4. The chance of transmission is even greater if the baby is exposed to HIV-infected blood or fluids. Health care providers should avoid performing amniotomies (intentionally rupturing the amniotic sac to induce labor), episiotomies and other procedures that expose the baby to the mother’s blood.
5. The risk of transmission increases by 2% for every hour after membranes have been ruptured.
6. Cesarean sections performed before labor and/or the rupture of membranes may significantly reduce the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV.
7. About 15% of newborns born to HIV-positive women will become infected if they breastfeed for 24 months or longer.