Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Aplastic Anemia

  1. The hallmark of aplastic anemia is peripheral pancytopenia coupled with hypoplastic or aplastic bone marrow. Q
  2. Severe aplastic anemia is defined as a condition in which two or more cell components have become seriously compromised (i.e. an absolute neutrophil count < 500 / mm3, a platelet count < 20,000/mm3, a reticulocyte count < 1% in a patient whose bone marrow biopsy material is Hypocellular) 

Classification of  Aplastic Anemias

  1. Acquired
    1. Secondary
      1. Radiation
      2. Drugs and chemical
      3. Cytotoxic agents, benzene, chloramphenicol, anti inflammatory drugs, anti epileptics, gold.
    2. Viruses
      1. Epstein Barr virus
      2. Hepatitis B,C
      3. Parvovirus B 19
      4. HIV
      5. CMV
    3. Immune disease
      1. Eosinophilic fascitis
      2. Hypo immuno globulinemia
    4. Others
      1. PNH
      2. Pre leukemia

Congenital syndromes associated with bone marrow failure



Associated features

Risk of malignancy

Fanconi anemia


Absent thumbs, absent radius, microcephaly, renal anomalies, short stature, cafe au lait spots, skin pigmentation

High risk of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplasia, oral and liver cancers

Dyskeratosis congenita

X-linked recessive, AD, AR

Nail dystrophies, leukoplakia

Cancer (usually squamous cell) and myelodysplasia.

Single lineage cytopenias

Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia


Usually none


Diamond-Blackfan (PRCA)


Short stature, congenital anomalies in 1/3 children, macrocytosis, elevated Hb F, raised adenosine deaminase

Leukemia, myelodysplasia and other cancer

Thrombocytopenia absent radii (TAR)


Absent radius


AR autosomal recessive, AD autosomal dominant, Hb F fetal hemoglobin.


Indications for stem cell transplantation

Malignant Disorder

Non malignant disorder

Acute myeloid leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Hodgkin lymphoma (relapsed, refractory)

Non-Hodgkin (relapsed or refractory) lymphoma Neuroblastoma

Ewing sarcoma

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Gliomas, other solid tumors


Aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia

Immune deficiency syndromes

Inborn errors of metabolism

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name