Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

 

Hemoglobin

  1. Hemoglobin is a complex protein consisting of iron containing heme group and the protein moiety globin.
  2. The hemoglobin molecule is a tetramer made up of two pairs of polypeptide chains each chain having a heme group attached
    1. Hemoglobin A → α2 β2
    2. Hemoglobin A2 → α2 δ2.
    3. Hemoglobin F →  α2 γ2
    4. Gower-1 → ξ2 ε2       Zeta 2 epsilon 2
    5. Gower-2 →  α2 ε2      Aloha 2 epsilon 2
    6. El Por/and → ε2γ2      Zeta 2 gamma 2 
  3. In embryo of 4-8 wks gestation, the Gower Hb is 'predominant but by the 3rd month of gestation they have disappeared. After 8th gestational wk, HbF is the predominant hemoglobin. At 24 wks of gestation HbF constitute 90% of total hemoglobin 
  4. At birth
    1. HbF → 70%          
    2. HbA → 30%
  5. At 2 month
    1. HbF → 50%          
    2. HbA → 5Q%
  6. At 6-12 month only traces of HbF present
  7. At 12 month
    1. HbA predominant  
    2. HbA2 2-3.4%
  8. Smallest amount of Gower Hb 13/15 trisomy.
  9. Hb Portland Cord blood of still born with Homozygous alpha thalassemia
  10. HbF increase
    1. Homozygous – thalassemia
    2. After erythropoietin hormone therapy
    3. Juvenile CMI
    4. Trisomy 13
    5. Pure red cell aplasia (Diamond black fan syndrome)
  11. Tetramers of γ chain (γ4 or Hb Barts)
     
    - Alpha thalassemia syndrome
  12. Tetramers of β chain (β4 or HbH)
  13. HbA2 increase  
    1. Thalassemia trait          
    2. Megaloblastic anemia
  14. HbA2 decrease
    1. Iron deficiency anemia
    2. Alfa – Thalassemia 

 

Cord blood

2 wks

3 months

6 months – 6 years

7 –12 years

Adult

Neutrophil

61 %

40%

30%

45%

55%

55%

Lymphocyte

31%

60%

48%

48%

38%

38%





Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name