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Blood or something else

Introduction
Blood group characteristics are established at an early age, are specific to the individual; and once established they are unchanged throughout life.
 
Individual cannot posses antigen which both his parents lack.
Blood grouping can be done from blood, soft tissues, hair, nail, dental pulp, bone & body secretions.
                                 
Blood which has effused during life can be peeled of in scales on drying due to presence of fibrin, blood which has flowed after death tends to break up in to powder on drying.
  1. Tests for Blood stains:
    1. Tests done to know if the blood is of human origin or any other source (serological tests)
    2. Tests done to identify blood stains: a) Spectroscopy b) Macrochemical tests c) Microchemical tests
    3. Tests for BLOOD GROUPING OF THE STAINS
  1. Tests done to know if the blood is of human origin or any other source (serological tests)
    1. Immunological methods:
      1. - Gel diffusion
      2. -Double diffusion in agar gel
      3. -Precipitation electrophoresis
      4. - Hemagglutination-inhibition test (Antiglobulin consumption test).
      5. Precipitin test
      6. - Latex test
    2. Isoenzyme methods: They are based on the electrophoretic demonstration of the existence of enzymes in blood of the same species in multiple molecular forms known as isoenzymes. They are less sensitive than immunological methods.




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