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Finger Printing

    1. Most reliable method * of identification of a person.
    2. Finger prints are impressions of patterns formed by the papillary ridges of the finger tips.
    3. Classified primarily as: Loops: 67%, most common*
          Whorls: 25%
          Arches: 6-7%
          Composite: 1-2%, least common*
      First started in India. It is legally valid. It means it is acceptable in court.
    4. The patterns are not inherited.
    5. The pattern is different even in identical twins. (Quetlet’s rule of biological variation)
      1. Permanent impairment of finger-prints occurs in– Leprosy, electrocution & radiation exposure.
      2. Finger-prints not altered but distance between ridges changed in- Infantile paralysis, rickets & acromegaly.
      3. Finger-prints’ ridge alteration occurs in- eczema, acanthosis nigricans, scleroderma, dry or atrophic skin.
      4. Ridge atrophy & loss of pattern in- Coeliac disease.
      5. In practice 10 to 12 points of fine comparison are accepted as proof of identity
    6. Locard’s principle- whenever two things come in contact on earth, there is always some exchange of energy between them. 
    7. Commonly used powder for lifting finger prints is grey powder (Chalk + Hg) and white powder (French chalk + Pb CO3)

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