Important signs of bronchial adenoma are all except:
|A||Cough without sputum|
|D||Conservative treatment is TOC|
a. Bronchial adenoma is a respiratory tract neoplasms that arise beneath the bronchial epithelium or in bronchial glands.
b. Carcinoids (2 types of bronchial neuroendocrine tumors) account for 85% of bronchial gland tumors and 1-2% of all lung malignancies.
c. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma), which commonly arises in a salivary gland, accounts for 10% of bronchial adenomas.
d. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for 1-5% of all bronchial gland tumors (0.1-02% of all lung tumors).
e. The common bronchial gland adenoma is a truly benign mucous gland adenoma and mesodermal and other lesions can arise in the tracheobronchial tree.
f. Men and women are equally affected.
g. Up to 60% of patients have no symptoms
h. CT scanning is the best imaging modality.Fine cuts (eg, 1- to 2-mm) should be obtained through nodules, looking for calcifications.
i. Tracheobronchial obstruction is suggested by compression of structures in close proximity to the trachea on the chest CT scan. Three-dimensional reconstruction may aid in localization of endobronchial tumors.
i. This procedure is plagued by incomplete tumor removal, with frequent recurrence due to extraluminal tumor bulk, often with limited tumor visibility and accessibility via the bronchoscope. It also carries a high risk of hemorrhage.
ii. Bronchoscopic resection is warranted to alleviate bronchial obstruction in patients in whom thoracotomy is prohibitive.
iii. The technique of argon-beam electrocoagulation may be very useful for bronchoscopic control of bleeding prior to definitive resection.