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Physiology

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Question
23 out of 33
 

In Caissons disease all seen except?



A Myonecrosis
B Lymphedema

C Paraplegia
D None

Ans. B Lymphedema

I. Effects of increased Barometric pressure: on N2 As in case of Diving deep in sea:­

a. If a diver breaths compressed air (under high pressure) the amount of N2 dissolved in the body fluid become great, the increased PN2 can cause Nitrogen narcosis, a condition also known as.

II. Rupture of the deep.

a. S/S - (with increasing pressure i. e. with increasing depth in sea) due to Nitrogen narcosis :

Euphoria then symptoms resemble alcohol intoxication Intectual function are impaired but manual dexterity is maintained.

b. Prevention: The problem of Nitrogen narcosis can be avoided by breathing mixtures of Oxygen and helium and deeper dives can be made.

c. Helium is used instead of N2 because:

i. Only l/5th the narcotic effect of N2

ii. Only 1/2 as much volume of helium dissolves in the body tissues as N2, and volume that dissolve diffuses out of the tissues several times as rapidly as does N2, thus reducing the problem of depression sickness.

iii. Low density of helium (l/7th of N2) keeps the airway resistance for breathing at a minimum.

III. Decompression sickness

(Also known as Bends, compressed Air Sickness, Caisson Disease, Diver's Paralysis, or Dysbarism)

a. As a diver breathing 80% N2 ascends from a dive the elevated alveolar PN2 falls. N2 diffuses from the tissues into the lungs along the partial pressure gradient. Bubbles form in the tissues and blood (blocking the blood vessels) and causing symptoms of decompression sickness or the Bends or Caisson disease. Q

b. Symptoms commonly appear 10-30 min after the diver resurfaces and they progress. Q

c. Symptoms:

i. Bubbles in tissues causes:

Severe pain particularly around joints (known as Bends) and in muscles (in 85 to 90% cases) ­and neurological symptoms that includes - Paresthesia and Itching

ii. Bubbles in blood stream, which occurs in most severe cases, obstruct the arteries to brain (collapse, dizziness, unconciousness); and spinal cord (m. c. and can lead to Paralysis and respiratory failure

iii. Micro Bubbles plugging the capillaries in lungs causes CHOKES, which c/b Dyspnea, (serious shortness of breath), often followed by severe pulmonary edema and occasionally death.

d. Management:

a. Uses of mixtures of O2 and Helium before diving. Q

b. Decompression (resurfaces) is gradual no harmful effects are observed. Q

c. t/t of this Caisson disease is prompt recompression in a pressure chamber followed by slow decompression Q

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