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  1. Made of LEAD.
  2. The extent of damage depends on the velocity.

  1. EXPRESS bullet: bullet with a hole
  2. RICOCHET bullet: before striking the object aimed at,it strikes some intervening object first, then after rebounding, it hits the target.
  3. DUMDUM bullet: tip is chiselled out, it fragments extensively upon striking
  4. YAWNING bullet: it traverses in an irregular fashion, causes a key hole entry wound.
  5. TUMBLING bullet: it rotates end on end during its motion.
  6. SOUVENIER bullet: left in body for a long time, surrounded by dense fibrous tissue.
  7. FRANGIBLE bullets: designed to fragment on impact
  8. PIGGYBACK bullet/ TANDEM bullet (tandem = one behind the other):
    two bullets are ejected one after the other, first bullet failed to leave the barrel and is ejected by subsequently fired bullet. This occurs due to defect in the weapon, or due to faulty ammunition, or with loaded firearm unused for several years.
  9. TANDEM or DUPLEX CARTRIDGE: 2 bullets are present in the same cartridge which enter the target object at different points. Because they are placed one after another and their linear axis is not in one line.
  10. Tracer Bullet: This type of bullet leaves a visible mark or ‘trace’ while in flight so that gunner can observe the strike of the shot. They have the rear portion of the bullet filled with a chemical compound, a mixture of barium nitrate and powered magnesium with strontium nitrate added to give it a red colouring. The mixture is ignited by the flash of the propellant and burns during the flight of the bullet shedding red sparks.
  11. Incendiary bullets: A type of army bullet used to cause fire in the target. Usually confined to use in the aircraft armament in order to ignite fuel tanks. The bullet is filled with white phosphorus, which possesses property of ignition on coming in contact with air.
  12. Bullets are made of Lead.

Extra Edges : 
Kennedy phenomenon: due to suturing or surgery of gun-shot wounds, evaluation of wound as entry or exit wound becomes difficult. (its an artifact)


Bevelling of the skull: entry wound – bevelling in inner table of skull exit wound – bevelling in outer table of skull

  1. Entrance Wound :
    is circular with inverted edges, surrounded by blackened and singed area. Abrasion collar and grease or dirt collar tells about the direction*.

Wound produced by smooth bored weapon/ SHOT GUN






Contact wound

Firm contact over bones

Firm contact over area without shallowly situated bone

Loose contact with the skin

Tissues of the track shows burning, blackening and tattooing, cherry red NOT THE MARGINS

Burning, tattooing and blackening ABSENT ON THE MARGIN

Blackening, burning and tattooing around the margins and in the track

Disruption of the margin with subsidiary linear tear in the skin, cruciate or stellate shape

Round or oval

Shape depending on whether underlying bone is shallow or deep

Close range

Up to 30 cms

30 cms to 1 m

blackening, singeing, tattooing, cherry red.

NO burning, blackening, not cherry red, tattooing may be seen

Circular with nibbling & crenation of edges.

Margins show scalloping, giving RAT – HOLE appearance.

Mid range

 1 to 2 m

Shot mass enters the body in one mass, NO burning , blackening, tattooing seen

Round hole, due to the penetration of the shot in en masse.

Intermediate range

2 - 4 m

Shot mass begins to spread

Satellite pellet holes around the central hole.

Long range

> 4 m

Shots spread widely

Individual pellets

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