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Biochemistry

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Enzymes

Question
74 out of 79
 

Internal respiration are: (PGI)



A Exogenic and anabolic

B Exogenic and catabolic

C Endogenic and anabolic

D Cytochrome - C reductase involved

Ans. B Exogenic and catabolic, E. Cytochrome - C reductase involved

Biological oxidation (catabolism) of food stuffs :-occurs in three stages

a. Primary metabolism (digestion)

In GIT, macromolecules are converted into small units i.e. carbohydrates into glucose, Lipids into fatty acids, and proteins into amino acids.

b. Secondary or Intermediate metabolism

These smaller units (eg. Glucose) are catabolized - and ultimately oxidized to CO -) producing

reducing equivalents (NADH or FADH via TCA cycle.

c. Tertiary metabolism or Internal Respiration or Cellular respiration

i. These reducing equivalents enter into electron transport chain, where energy is released. D

ii. Free energy (ΔG) detonates a portion of the total energy (=Enthalpy) change in a system that is

iii. available for doing work.

iv. Exergonic (=Exothermic) reaction:

v. In this Free energy is released

G is negative

Reaction can occur spontaneously

eg. As definition in Internal Respiration energy is released and this reaction is Exergonic and

catabolic.

vi. There are three sites in ETC where free energy is released.

vii. Endergonic Reactions (=Endothermic reaction) : In this

Free energy is absorbed

ΔG is positive

An input of energy is required to drive the reaction Cyt-C-reductase well known part of respiratory chain (ETC), and therefore internal respiration

In biological oxidation free energy resulting from oxidation of food stuffs - 68% of free energy is

viii. captured in the form of ATP oxidative phosphorylation at the respiratory chain.

(i.e. Efficiency = 68%) and remaining free energy is liberated as =Exergonic)

“90% of O2 consumption in the basal state is mitochondrial, and 80% of this is coupled to

ix. ATP synthesis About 27% of the ATP is used for protein synthesis, and about 24% is used for Na+-

K+-ATPase 9% by gluconeogenesis, 6% by Ca+± ATPase, 5% by Myosin ATPase and 3% by

Ureagenesis”

Enzymes Flashcard List

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