Ketamine is preferred agent for induction in all except:
|A||Tetralogy of Fallot|
|D||Congestive heart failure|
|E||Ventricular septal defect (VSD)|
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
In constrictive pericarditis, CHF and cardiac tamponade cardiac output is mainly determined by heart rate, so ketamine by increasing the heart rate will maintain cardiac output. In right to left shunts ketamine by causing, hypertension increases the after load thereby decreasing the shunt fraction while in VSD by increasing the after load it will increase the shunt fraction.