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  1. Gastrosplenic ligament is derived from dorsal mesogastrium.
  2. Ligamentum teres is an adult remnant of left umbilical vein.
  3. Goblet cells are absent in the stomach.
  4. Liver is divided into functional anatomical segments by following two veins (Couinaud’s classification):
    a. Hepatic veins
    b. Portal vein branches
  5. Liver segments knowledge is further enhancedby following the biliary ducts (Healey and Schroy).
  6. Right suprarenal vein drains into inferior vena cavae; Left suprarenal into left renal vein.
  7. Collateral venous circulation in inferior vena cava obstruction:
    a. The lumbar veins connect to branches of the superior and inferior epigastric, circumflex iliac, lateral thoracic, subcostal and posterior intercostal veins.
    b. They also anastomose with tributaries of the azygos, hemiazygos and lumbar azygos veins.
    c. The interconnecting vertebral venous plexuses provide an additional route of collateral circulation between the vena cavae.
  8. Superior boundary of epiploic foramen is formed by caudate lobe of liver
  9. Calot’s triangle is bounded by the common hepatic duct medially; inferior border of liver superiorly and cystic duct inferiorly.
  10. Calot’s triangle contents are:
    a. Cystic artery        
    b. The cystic lymph node (Lund)    
    c. Aberrant / accessory Right Hepatic Artery
  11. In Hirschsprung disease the aganglionic segment is in contracted state (Narrowed lumen), whereas, the normal proximal segment is dilated (Megacolon).
  12. Omphalocele is caused by failure of midgut to return to the body cavity from its physiological herniation.
  13. Sperms are released from the epididymis during ejaculation. Sperms are stored and become progressively motilein epididymis.
  14. Level III axillary lymph nodes are present above (superomedial) the pectoralis minor.
  15. Percussion over the Fundus (Traube’s space) of stomach gives tympanic note.
  16. Portal vein is formed behind the neck of pancreas, by the union of superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
  17. During herniorrhaphy ilio-inguinal nerve is damaged, while working in the inguinal canal, whereas, ilio-hypogastric nerve may be damaged while putting the incision for herniorrhaphy at the inguinal region.
  18. Medial border of Hesselbach’s triangle is made by Linea semilunaris (Lateral edge of rectus abdominis muscle).
  19. Inguinal canal boundaries:
    a. Posterior – Transversalis fascia and conjoint tendon
    b. Anterior – External oblique muscle (and reinforced by internal oblique on the lateral aspect additionally)
    c. Base – Inguinal ligament
    d. Roof – arched fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominis
  20. Inguinal canal contents:
    a. Spermatic cord (Male)       
    b. Round ligament (Female)              
    c. Ilio-inguinal ligament (both sexes)
  21. Spermatic cord contains:
    a. 3 fascial layers: external spermatic, internal spermatic, cremastric
    b. 3 arteries: artery to vas deferens, testicular artery, cremasteric artery
    c. 3 other vessels: pampiniform plexus, ductus deferens, lymphatics
    d. 1 nerve: genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve


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