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  1. The human brain is larger, so the absolute size of the association area is greater.
  2. Brain tissue normally uses glucose as an exclusive fuel expect during starvation (use ketone bodies)
  3. Basal ganglia consists of - caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalmic nucleus, and substantia nigra.
  4. Dopamine is the major neurotransmitter in substantia nigra.
  5. Flocculonodular lobe constitutes the vestibule-cerebellum. Output from flocculonodular lobe goes directly to the brainstem, bypassing the deep cerebellar nuclei and is concerned with maintenance of equilibrium.
  6. Purkinje cells are amongst the biggest neurons in the body. Their axons are the only output from the cerebellar neulei from where they are projected to other part viz. thalamus, brainstem.
  7. Osmoreceptors are located in anterior hypothalamus. Increase in heart rate with exercise is under medullary control.
  8. Glutamate is the main excitatory transmitter in brain & spinal cord GAB A is the major inhibitory transmitter in brain.
  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of progeressive motor neuron disease. It involves both upper motor neuron (UMN) & lower motor neuron (LMN) disorders.
  10. The main motor supply of intrafusal fibres(Muscle spindle) is γ (gamma) neurons, α motor neuron exclusively supply extrafusal fibres.
    a. Inhibitory amino acids
    b. Glycine, GABA( open Chloride channel)
  11. Excitatory amino acids Aspartate, Glutamate (both open Na+channels)
  12. The satiety centre is located in the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus. Vomiting centre is located in medulla.
  13. Pain producing substance is serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine Cauterization and cutting doesn't induce visceral pain True visceral pain arise from distention.
  14.  Red colour blindness is called protanopia. Green colour blindness is called deuteranopia.
  15. Nucleus garacilis & nucleus cuneatus are the first synapse for dorsal columns.
  16. First change to occur in the distal segment of cut end nerves is axonal degeneration.
  17. Rhodopsin is most sensitive for green and least sensitive for red light
  18. Nissl's substance is composed of rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  19. Circadian rhythmis controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus. Pyrogens raise body temperature by releasing interleukins (IL-1)
  20. Propioception is carried by Aα or type I fibers.
  21. Muscle spindle acts through muscle stretch reflex. Gamma efferent discharge is influenced by Anxiety, Stimulation of skin especially by noxious agents, Higher centres of CNS.
  22. Jendrassik's maneuver (pulling hands apart when flexed fingers are hooked together) increases a efferent discharge.
  23. Golgi tendon organ functions as sensor for muscles force (tension), whereas muscle spindle sense muscle length & velocity. The threshold of golgi tendon is low.
  24. Weber Fechner law: " Magnitude of sensation felt is proportionate to the log of intensity of the stimulus"
  25. Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatiguability of skeletal muscle. The underlying defect is a decrease in the number of available nicotinic Ach receptor at the neuromuscular junction due to an antibody mediated autoimmune attack
  26. EEG waves are called Berger rhythm, Normal EEG is bilaterally symmetrica
  27. Sleep
    a. Alpha waves - 8-13 Hz, Seen in awake patient with closed eyes.
    b. Beta waves - >14Hz seen in awake with open eyes.
    c. Theta waves - 4-7 Hz seen in hippocampus
    d. Delta waves - 3-5Hz seen in deep sleep
  28. Visible range of electromagnetic spectrum of human eye - 370-740nm
  29. Relative color and Luminosity of photoreceptive input under changing light are regulated and maintained by - Amacrine cells
  30. Parvocellular pathway from lateral geniculate nucleus to visual cortex is most sensitive for stimulus of colour contrast.
  31. Blobs of visual cortex (V4) are associated with colour processing
  32. Purkinje cells are the largest neurons in the body
  33. The axons of purkinje cells are the only output from cerebellar cortex and these pass to deep nuclei.

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