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General Anatomy

  1. Ethanol is a preservative and can be used for embalming but is not the usual content of Embalming fluid/solution. Instead Methanol is used, which is cheaper and more toxic to bacteria than ethanol.
  2. Incus and talus bone has no muscle attachments.
  3. Palmaris brevis is a subcutaneous muscle
  4. Sterno-cleidomastoid  is a muscle with 2 heads and one belly, (like biceps brachii), and is mot a digastric muscle.
  5. Microscopic examination of articular surface of synovial joint demonstrates Hyaline cartilage. (Exception: TM joint – articular cartilage is of fibrocartilage variety).
  6. Superficial veins are subdermal (under dermis)
  7. The right lymphatic ductdrains lymph from the body’sright upper quadrant (right side of head, neck, and thoraxplus the right upper limb). At the root of the neck, it entersthe junction of the right internal jugular and right subclavianveins, the right venous angle.

Table - Derivatives of the pharyngeal arches

 
Arch number Embryonic cartilage Cartilage derivative Muscle Nerve Artery
1
     Quadrate
     Meckel's
     Incus
     Malleus
     Anterior ligament of malleus
     Spine of sphenoid
     Sphenomandibular ligament
     Genial tubercle of mandible
     Tensor tympani
     Muscles of mastication
     Mylohyoid
     Anterior belly digastric
     Tensor veli palatini
     Trigeminal (V)
     Mandibular division
First aortic arch artery [transitory]
2 Reichert's
     Stapes
     Styloid process of temporal bone
     Stylohyoid ligament
     Lesser horn and upper part of Body of hyoid bone
     Stapedius
     Stylohyoid
     Facial muscles, incl.
     Buccinator
     Platysma
     Posterior belly digastric
Facial (VII) Stapedial artery [transitory]
3   Greater horn and lower part of body of hyoid Stylopharyngeus Glossopharyngeal (IX) Common carotid artery, first part of internal carotid artery
4  
     Thyroid cartilage
     Corniculate cartilage
     Cunieform cartilage
Pharyngeal and extrinsic laryngeal muscles, levator veli palatini
     Vagus (X)
     Pharyngeal branch
     Proximal part of subclavian artery on the right
     Arch of aorta between origins of left common carotid and left subclavian arteries
6   Arytenoid cartilages Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
     Vagus (X)
     Recurrent laryngeal branch
     Part between the pulmonary trunk and dorsal aorta.
     Becomes ductus arteriosus on left, disappears on right.

Table - Summary of cranial nerves

No Name Components Cells of origin Main central connections Exit from skull Distribution and function
I Olfactory Special somatic afferent Olfactory receptor cells in nasal mucosa To olfactory bulb, anterior perforated substance, piriform cortex Foramina of cribriform plate Olfaction
II Optic Special somatic afferent Ganglion cells of retina To lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus, pretectal area of midbrain Optic canal Vision
III Oculomotor Somatic efferent Oculomotor nucleus From visual cortical areas, medial longitudinal fasciculus Superior orbital fissure Motor to medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae superioris
III Oculomotor General visceral efferent Edinger–Westphal nucleus From pretectal area of midbrain Superior orbital fissure Parasympathetic to sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles, via ciliary ganglion, mediating pupillary constriction and accommodation
IV Trochlear Somatic efferent Trochlear nucleus From visual cortical areas, medial longitudinal fasciculus Superior orbital fissure Motor to superior oblique
V Trigeminal division:          
  Ophthalmic (Vi) General somatic afferent Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion To trigeminal sensory nucleus Superior orbital fissure Sensation from forehead, scalp, eyelids, nose and eye, including conjunctiva
  Maxillary (Vii) General somatic afferent Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion To trigeminal sensory nucleus Foramen rotundum Sensation from mid-face, lower eyelid, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, upper lip, maxillary teeth and palate
  Mandibular (Viii) General somatic afferent Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion To trigeminal sensory nucleus Foramen ovale Sensation from lower face and scalp, tongue and floor of mouth, mandibular teeth and part of external ear
    General somatic afferent Mesencephalic part of trigeminal sensory nucleus To trigeminal sensory nucleus, cerebellum Foramen ovale Proprioception from muscles of mastication, temporomandibular joint
  Mandibular (VIII) Branchial (special visceral) efferent Trigeminal motor nucleus From precentral gyrus Foramen ovale Motor to muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids), tensor tympani
VI Abducens Somatic efferent Abducens nucleus From visual cortical areas, medial longitudinal fasciculus Superior orbital fissure Motor to lateral rectus
VII Facial General somatic afferent Geniculate ganglion To trigeminal sensory nucleus, cerebellum Internal acoustic meatus Sensation from part of tympanic membrane, external acoustic meatus and skin behind pinna. Proprioception from facial muscles
VII Facial Special visceral afferent Geniculate ganglion To nucleus solitarius Internal acoustic meatus Taste from anterior two-thirds of tongue
VII Facial General visceral efferent Superior salivatory nucleus From olfactory areas, nucleus solitarius Internal acoustic meatus Parasympathetic to lacrimal gland and mucous membrane of nasal and oral cavities (via pterygopalatine ganglion) and submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (via submandibular ganglion) causing secretion and vasodilatation
VII Facial Branchial (special visceral) efferent Facial nucleus From precentral gyrus Internal acoustic meatus Motor to muscles of facial expression, stapedius, posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid
VIII Vestibulocochlear          
  Vestibular division Special somatic afferent Vestibular ganglion To vestibular nuclei, cerebellum Internal acoustic meatus Sensations of equilibrium and motion
  Cochlear division Special somatic afferent Spiral ganglion To cochlear nuclei Internal acoustic meatus Hearing
IX Glossopharyngeal General somatic afferent Glossopharyngeal ganglia To trigeminal sensory nucleus Jugular foramen General sensation from posterior one-third of tongue, oropharynx and middle ear
IX Glossopharyngeal General visceral afferent Glossopharyngeal ganglia To nucleus solitarius Jugular foramen Sensory from carotid body (chemoreceptors) and carotid sinus (baroreceptors)
IX Glossopharyngeal Special visceral afferent Glossopharyngeal ganglia To nucleus solitarius Jugular foramen Taste from posterior one-third of tongue
IX Glossopharyngeal General visceral efferent Inferior salivatory nucleus From olfactory areas, nucleus solitarius Jugular foramen Parasympathetic to parotid salivary gland (via otic ganglion), causing secretion and vasodilatation
IX Glossopharyngeal Branchial (special visceral) efferent Nucleus ambiguus From precentral gyrus Jugular foramen Motor to stylopharyngeus
X Vagus General somatic afferent Superior (jugular) ganglion To trigeminal sensory nucleus Jugular foramen General sensation from pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, part of auricle and external auditory meatus
X Vagus General visceral afferent Inferior (nodose) ganglion To nucleus solitarius Jugular foramen Sensory from thoracic and abdominal viscera
            Sensory from aortic arch (baroreceptors) and aortic bodies (chemoreceptors)
X Vagus General visceral efferent Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus From hypothalamus, nucleus solitarius Jugular foramen Parasympathetic to glands and smooth muscle in the pharynx, larynx; thoracic and abdominal viscera
X Vagus Branchial (special visceral) efferent Nucleus ambiguus From precentral gyrus, sensory nuclei of brain stem Jugular foramen Motor to pharyngeal, external laryngeal and oesophageal striated muscles
XI Accessory          
  Cranial root Branchial (special visceral) efferent Nucleus ambiguus From precentral gyrus, sensory nuclei of brain stem Jugular foramen Motor to muscles of soft palate and intrinsic muscles of larynx (distributed via vagus)
  Spinal root Branchial (special visceral) efferent Spinal cord segments C1–C5 From precentral gyrus Jugular foramen Motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
XII Hypoglossal Somatic efferent Hypoglossal nucleus From precentral gyrus Hypoglossal canal Motor to all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue, except palatoglossus
Table - Vertebral spines as landmarks for the viscera
 
Spine Viscera
C5 Cricoid cartilage, start of oesophagus
C7 Apex of lung
T3 Aorta reaches spine. Tracheal bifurcation
T4 Aortic arch ends. Upper border of heart
T8 Lower border of heart. Central tendon of diaphragm
T10 Lower border of lung. Cardia of stomach. Upper border of kidney
T12 Lowest level of pleura. Pylorus
L1 Hilum of kidney. Renal arteries. Superior mesenteric artery
L2 Spinal cord terminates. Pancreas. Duodenojejunal flexure
L3 Lower border of kidney
L4 Bifurcation of aorta
L5 Inferior vena cava begins
Table - Movements and muscles tested to determine the location of a lesion in the upper limb
 
Arm movement Muscle Upper motor neurone Root Reflex Nerve
Shoulder abduction Deltoid ++ C5   Axillary
Elbow flexion Biceps   C5/6 + Musculocutaneous
Brachioradialis   C6   Radial
Elbow extension Triceps + C7 + Radial
Radial wrist extensor Extensor carpi radialis longus + C6   Radial
Finger extensors Extensor digitorum + C7 (+) Posterior interosseous
Finger flexors Flexor pollicis longus & flexor digitorum profundus   C8 + Anterior interosseous
Index        
Flexor digitorum profundus       Ulnar
Ring & little        
Finger abduction First dorsal interosseous ++ T1   Ulnar
Abductor pollicis brevis   T1   Median
Pain Referra From Abdominal Viscera
 
Organ Diaphragm Referral Area Pathway
Central C3-C5: neck and shoulder Phrenic nerve
Marginal T5-T10: thorax Intercostal verves
Forgut    
Stomach, gallbladder T5-T9: lower thorax Celiac plexus to greater
Liver, bile duct
Superior duodenum
epigastric region splanchnic nerve
Midgut:    
Inferior duodenum, T10-T11: unmbilical region Superior mesenteric plexus
to lesser splanchnic nerve
Jejunum, ileum,    
Appendix,    
Ascending colon,    
Transverse colon
(Kidney, upper)
T12-L1: lumbar and Aorticorenal plexus to least
to lesser splanchinc nerve
Jejunmum, ileum,    
Appendix,    
Ascendix,    
Ascending colon    
(kidney,upper) T12-L1: lumbar and Aorticorenal plexus to least
(Uresters, gonads) ipsilateral inguinal splanchnic nerve Regions
Hindgut:    
Descending colon, L1-L2: suprapubic and inguinal Aortic plexus to lumbar
Sigmoid colon, regions, anterior scrotum splanchnic nerves
Mid-ureters or labia, anterior thigh  
Table - Homologies of the parts of the urogenital system in male and female
 
Gonad Testis Ovary
Gubernacular cord Gubernaculum testis Ovarian and round ligaments
Mesonephros (Wolffian body) Appendix of epididymis (?) Appendices vesiculosae (?)
Efferent ductules Epoöphoron
Lobules of epididymis  
Paradidymis Paroöphoron
Aberrant ductules  
Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) Duct of epididymis Duct of epoöphoron (Gartner's duct)
Vas deferens  
Ejaculatory duct  
Part of bladder and prostatic urethra Part of bladder and urethra
Paramesonephric (Müllerian) duct Appendix of testis Uterine tube
  Uterus
Prostatic utricle Vagina (?)
Allantoic duct Urachus Urachus
Cloaca:    
 Dorsal part Rectum and upper part of anal canal Rectum and upper part of anal canal
 Ventral part Most of bladder Most of bladder and urethra
  Part of prostatic urethra  
 Urogenital sinus Prostatic urethra distal to utricle  
Bulbo-urethral glands Greater vestibular glands
Rest of urethra to glans Vestibule
Genital folds Ventral penis Labia minora
Genital tubercle Penis Clitoris
Urethra in glans  
Contents Of The Perineal Spaces Are Gender Specific
 
Gender Superficial Perineal Space Deep Perineal Space
Male Testes, crura of penis, bulb of Penis, penile urethra, Superficial transverse Perineal muscles Deep transverse perineal external urethral sphincter, bulbourethral glands, membranous urethra
Female Crura of the clitoris, vestibular Bulbs, superficial Transverse Perineal muscles, greater Vestibular, glands Deep transverse perineal muscle, external urethralsphincter, urethra

Table – Intervertebral disc herniation and the affected spinal root values.
 
IVD herniation
Table - The movements and muscles tested to determine the location of a lesion in the lower limb
 
Movement Muscle Upper motor neurone Root Reflex Nerve
Hip flexion Iliopsoas ++ L1, 2   Femoral
Hip adduction Adductors   L2, 3 (+) Obturator
Hip extension Gluteus maximus   L5, S1   Sciatic
Knee flexion Hamstrings + S1   Sciatic
Knee extension Quadriceps   L3, 4 ++ Femoral
Ankle dorsiflexion Tibialis anterior ++ L4   Deep fibular
Ankle eversion Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis   L5, S1   Superficial fibular
Ankle inversion Tibialis posterior   L4, 5   Tibial
Ankle plantar flexion Gastrocnemius/soleus   S1, 2 ++ Tibial
Big toe extension Extensor hallucis longus   L5 (Babinski reflex) Deep fibular




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