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General Embryology

  1. Primordial germ cells are derived from epiblast cells. From there they migrate to the yolk sac and finally reach the genital ridge to form the gametes (Gametogenesis).
  2. In a female child at birth oocyte is seen in prophase (diplotene) of meiosis-1.
  3. Implantation begins at Day 5 and is completed at day 12.
  4. Outer cell mass is trophoblast. Trophoblast is involved in the formation of placenta.
  5. Uteroplacental circulation is established at day 12 (week 2)
  6. Feto - placental circulation is established at day 22 (week 4).
  7. Placenta has 2 components: fetal & maternal. Fetal component is contributed by trophoblast cells of blastocyst & maternal component is by the decidua basalis.
  8. Neural crest cells migrate throughout the body and give rise to ganglia and other structures, including portions of the adrenal medulla, but they do not contribute to the development of preganglionic autonomic nerves, adrenal cortex, or the dorsal horns of the spinal cord.
  9. Erector spinae and small intervertebral muscles are Epaxial muscles.
  10. Muscles of the iris (sphincter & dilator pupillae) are derived from neural plate ectoderm.
  11. Corneal endothelium is derived from the mesenchyme of neural crest cells (NCCs).
  12. Lens of eye and first layer of cornea develop from the surface ectoderm.
  13. Ovary develops from Intermediate mesoderm (genital ridge).
  14. Fertilization takes place in ampulla of fallopian tube.
  15. Fertilized ovum reaches uterine cavity at day 4 post-ovulation.
  16. Midgut is supplied by superior mesenteric artery.

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