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Last Minute Revision Point

  1. Police Inquest can be done by a person not below the ranking of Head Constable(HC) as HC can be a station house officer ie in-charge of a police station.
  2. Magistrate Inquest – 176 CRPC, is a must in deaths due to Police firing, Custodial deaths, Dowry deaths, Borstel school deaths, Death in Psychiatric hospital & Exhumation.
  3. Session courts can award death penalty / capital punishment, but it has to be reconfirmed by the respective High court of the state.
  4. Fast track courts & Additional Sessions courts have same powers as Session court .
  5. Chief Judicial Magistrate can award punishment upto 7yrs of imprisonment & fine of any amount.
  6. First class Judicial Magistrate can award punishment upto 3yrs of imprisonment & fine of Rs.10000.
  7. Second class Judicial Magistrate can award punishment upto 1yr of imprisonment & fine of Rs.5000.
  8. Consumer courts at District level deal with the cases wherein the compensation is less than 20 lakhs, at State level between 20 lakhs to 1 crore & at National level greater than 1 crore.
  9. Perjury is defined u/s 191 IPC & punishment for perjury u/s 193 IPC.
  10. Cephalic index, Height index & Nasal index help to determine race of an individual from skull bone.
  11. Faded tattoo mark can be made visible with the help of UV lamp. Evidence for disappeared tattoo mark should be searched in regional lymph nodes.
  12. Barr bodies, in females, are seen to an extent of 20%-80% & hence females are referred as chromatin positive individuals.
  13. Davidson body is seen only in females.
  14. All eminences of skull bone are prominent in males except frontal & parietal eminences which are prominent in females.
  15. The indices which help to determine sex from pelvis are Sacral index, Corporobasal index, Sciatic notch index & Ischio pubic index.
  16. Medico-legal importance of certain ages
    1. 1 yr – from 210days of intrauterine life to 1yr after birth killing a fetus or child amounts to Infanticide – in India it is treated as Murder
    2. 7yrs – nothing is an offence which is done by a person below the age of 7yrs, as child below 7yrs lacks Mens Rea
    3. 10yrs – abduction of a child below the age of 10yrs for the want of moveable property amounts to kidnapping – 369 IPC
    4. 14yrs – as per Indian Factory Act, a child below age of 14yrs cannot be employed to work in any factory or institution & can be employed after attaining age of 15yrs.
    5. 16yrs – age at which a female can give valid consent for sexual intercourse.
  17. Competent witness – a person of any age can be a competent witness – sec 118 IEA
  18. Forensic Odontology
    1. Types of permanent teeth – successional teeth-which have successors
      superadded teeth – which don’t have successors – all permanent molars
    2. Most reliable criteria of Gustafson’s method – transparency of root
    3. Boyd’s method – counting incremental lines – used for age estimation in infants
    4. Stack method – by measuring dimensions of teeth ie height & weight - used for age estimation in infants & children.
    5. Features of Mongoloid teeth – Taurodotism or bull tooth, Enamel pearls
      - Shovel shaped incisors, Congenital absence of maxillary molars.
    6. Features of Caucasoid teeth – Carabelli’s cusp.
  19. Formulae for estimating the stature – Karl Pearson’s, Trotter-Glesser, Steele’s, PAN, NAT, Thomas-Mehta, Shah-Siddiqui.
  20. The best method for identification is Dactylography/Fingerprinting & NOT DNA fingerprinting.
    1. Classification – loops(commonest), Whorls, Arches & Composite.
    2. Types – Visible, Latent & Plastic
    3. Scanning Electron Microscope visualizes latent prints on glass & metal.
    4. FINDER –FINger print reaDER – computerized automatic fingerprint reading system.
  21. Locard’s method of identification or Poroscopy – useful when finger print fragments are available.
  22. Hair helps in determining
a Sex by Barr bodies from hair root
b Positive identification DNA analysis from hair root
NAA analysis of trace elements in hair
c ABO blood groups from hair root cells
d Time since death if time of last shave is known, by measuring the beard length.
  1. Declarations
a Geneva Hippocratic Oath
b Oslo Legal termination of pregnancy
c Tokyo Torture
d Helsinki Human experimentation
  1. Professional death sentence or Penal erasure
    1. Warning notice – list of offences for which Professional death sentence can be given – provided by MCI
    2. Professional death sentence is given by State Medical Council
    3. Appeal against Professional death sentence has to be made to central health ministry.
  2. Any conduct of doctor to be considered as negligence it has to satisfy the following criteria
    Duty, Dereliction of duty,  Direct causation & Damage.
  3. Consent
a Types Implied (commonest ), Express ( oral & written )
b Sections dealing with consent 87 IPC, 88 IPC, 89 IPC, 90 IPC, 92 IPC, 53 CrPC, 54 CrPC
c Blanket consent is a type of invalid consent.
  1. Civil suit against a physician, for civil malpractice can be instituted only within 2yrs of alleged negligence – COPRA & Res Indicata.
  2. Important sections of IPC
    1. 44 – Any harm, Whatever illegally caused in body, mind, reputation or property
    2. 299 – culpable homicide
    3. 300 – definition of murder
    4. 302 –punishment for murder
    5. 304 – punishment for culpable homicide
    6. 304 A – rash & negligent act leading to death of an individual – sec under which doctor is tried for criminal negligence
    7. 304 B – dowry death
    8. 306 – abetment to suicide
    9. 307 - attempt to murder
    10. 308 -  Attempt to commit culpable homicide.
    11. 309 – attempt to suicide
    12. 312 – 316 – offences pertaining to criminal abortion
    13. 317 – abandonment of child
    14. 319 – hurt (includes bodily pain, infirmity or disease)
    15. 320 – grievous hurt
    16. 325 – punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt
    17. 351 – assault (Attampt to apply force to body of another person in hostile manner)
    18. 354 – indescent assault
    19. 375 – definition of rape
    20. 376 – punishment for rape
    21. 377 – unnatural sexual offences
    22. 498 A – torture against women
    23. 497 - adultery
    24. 510 – misconduct of drunken person in public
  3. Following are the defenses available for the doctor in cases of negligence,
    1. Time limitation
    2. Res Indicata
    3. Contributory negligence
    4. Therapeutic misadventure
    5. Res judicata
    6. Novus actus interveniens
    7. Product liability
    8. Medical maloccurances
  4. Types of autopsy techniques
    1. Virchow( most commonly used )
    2. Rokitansky
    3. Ghon
    4. Lettule( best technique )
  5. Preservatives and Preservation
    1. In suspected case of poisoning – Stomach with all its contents, 30cms of first part of intestine, Liver not less than 500gms, Kidneys-one half of each – all preserved in saturated solution of sodium chloride
      Blood-not less than 30ml – preservative is sodium / potassium fluoride
    2. For Virology – 80% glycerol in buffered saline
    3. Enzymatic estimation – Thermos flask containing liquid nitrogen
    4. Histopathology – 10% formalin
    5. DNA – 2-5ml blood with EDTA or Heparin
      - 100gms of muscle in normal saline
      - bone, teeth & hair don’t require any preservative
  6. Post Mortem Caloricity – apparent raise in temperature of the body after death
    1. Convulsive deaths – tetanus, strychnine, electrocution, lightening
    2. Septicemia
    3. Pontine hemorrhage
    4. Heat stroke
  7. Rigor mortis
    1. First appears in involuntary muscles – myocardium within 1 hr
    2. Among voluntary, first in eyelids & last in fingers & toes.
    3. Rule of 12 – takes 12hrs to appear all over body, remains on the body for next 12hrs, disappears from body in last 12hrs.
    4. Conditions simulating rigor – heat rigor, cold rigor, gas rigor, cadaveric spasm
  8. Putrfaction / decomposition
a Most Important organism Clostridium Welchii
b 3 stages colour changes, gas formation, liquefaction.
c First external sign greenish discoloration in right iliac fossa
d First internal sign greenish or brownish discoloration of lumen of vessel wall /  under surface of liver
e Marbling tortuous network of discolored veins – 36 – 48 hrs
  1. Forensic Ballistics
    1. Classification of firearm – mainly based on lumen of barrel.
      Lumen of barrel smooth, devoid of grooving – Smooth bore gun or Shot gun
      Lumen of barrel contains grooving, referred as riflings – Rifled weapon
    2. Shot gun
      1. Choking of shotgun – Narrowing of terminal few centimeters of lumen of the barrel.
        1. Increases penetrating capacity & range of weapon
        2. Prevents the dispersion of pellets for long distance
      2. Paradox gun – is a shotgun in which terminal few centimeters of lumen of barrel shows riflings.
      3. Primer mixture – Lead styphnate, Antimony sulphide, Barium nitrate, Mercury fulminate, Potassium chlorate.
      4. Gun powders   – Black powder comprising Charcoal, Sulphur & Potassium nitrate
        Smokeless powder in which single base contains Nitrocellulose, double base nitrocellulose + nitroglycerin, triple base nitrocellulose + nitroglycerin + nitroguanidin.
        Semi smokeless-20%smokeless + 80% black powder
    3. Rifled weapon
      1. Advantages of riflings – gives spinning effect to bullet, increases range of weapon & provides straight trajectory to bullet.
      2. Abrasion collar / contusion collar & Dirt / Grease collar are present only at entry wound of rifled weapon.
      3. Caliber of Rifled weapon – distance between 2 diagonally opposite lands.
      4. Caliber of Shotgun – Number of spherical lead balls, each of equal size, each fitting snugly into the barrel of the gun, that can be made of one pound of lead.
    4. Tests to detect gun powder residues
      1. Dermal nitrate test or Paraffin test
      2. Harrison – Gillroy test
      3. Infrared photography
      4. Neutron Activation Analysis

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