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Last Minute Revision Points

  1. A fatty acid Not synthesized in man is : Linoleic acid
  2. Phenylketonuria is detected by : Guthrie test
  3. Exhaustive treatise on scurvy was published by : James Lind
  4. Respiratory quotient on a mixed diet is : 0.85
  5. Quantity of Hb catabolized everyday in a normal adult is: 8gm
  6. Allosteric activators of phosphofructokinase: Fructose 2,6 biphosphate
  7. Aromatic amino acids are: Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine  &  Hisfidine
  8. Amino acids with its PKa value within physiological range: Histidine
  9. Dietary fibers rich in : Collagen
  10. Vibrational spectrum of proteins is due to : Tertiary structure
  11. Overnight fasting gastric output is : 10-20 meq/L
  12. "Squalene" is the intermediate product during synthesis of: Cholesterol
  13. The no. of ATP net gained after complete oxidation of palmitic acid is : 106
  14. Bence Jones proteins are: Light chains
  15. Mature RBC contains: Glycolytic enzymes
  16. Coproporphyrin-III is: Excreted in Lead poisoning
  17. Cofactor in one carbon metabolism is : Folic acid
  18. Pyruvate decarboxylase requires as coenzyme: thiamine
  19. Aerobic oxidation of reduced cytochromes shows P/O ratio of: 1
  20. Sulkowitch test is used to estimate Urinary Calcium
  21. Addis urine sediment count is a renal test of severity of disease
  22. Gerhand's test is positive in significant degree of: Ketosis
  23. In mature erythrocytes the major dialyzable anion is : Chloride
  24. "Reducing power" is usually in the form of: Reduced NADP+
  25. The P:O ratio observed upon conversion of succinate to fumarate is a system carrying out oxidative phosphorylation: 1.5
  26. Lipotrophic factors are: Choline, Methionine
  27. The most direct source of nitrogen in urea biosynthesis is: Ammonium ion, Aspartate
  28. Glutathione hydrolyzed produce: Glycine, Glutamate cystine.
  29. An increase in the rate of operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle occurs when there is an increase in the ratio of: NAD+/NADH,ADP/ATP
  30. The term secondary structure of proteins refers to : Alpha helix, Beta pleated sheath
  31. Unwinding (tortional strength decrease) of DNA is done by: Helicase
  32. Accepts electrons from succinate dehydrogenase: Ubiquinone (coenzyme) 
  33. Cofactor for sulphate oxidase is: Molybdenum
  34. Cholesterol is transported to extrahepatic tissue mainly through: LDL
  35. Chargaff's rule states that : A/T=G/C
  36. Substantial quantity of which inorganic ions is required for ribosomal function : K+
  37. The molecular weight of linoleic acid is 280 and the atomic weight of iodine is 127. The iodine number of this acid is: 180
  38. Kinases require : Mg++
  39. In anaerobic glycolysis, one mole of glucose yields: 2 moles of ATP
  40. Carnitine is synthesized from: Lysine, methionine
  41. Vit. D: is fat soluble vitamin functioning like a hormone
  42. The rate limiting step in the extra mitochondrial synthesis of fatty acids is : Acetyl CoA enzyme
  43. The monosaccharide most rapidly absorbed from the small intestine is : Galactose
  44. The first product of Glycogenolysis is : Glucose I-phosphate
  45. An Amino acid that is incompatible with an alpha - helix is : Proline
  46. Cyanide poisoning is due to : Inhibition of cytochrome oxidase
  47. An intermediate in 'active acetate' formation from acetate is : Acetyl AMP
  48. In oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation of one NADH to NAD+ produces: 3ATPs
  49. With help of pyridoxine , serotonin is synthesized from: Tryptophan  
  50. Hormone substrate concentration affects velocity of enzymatic action is known as : Michales Menton reaction
  51. Flexibility of protein chain is determined by : Glycine
  52. Sulphur containing amino acids are: Cysteine, methionine
  53. Physiological constituents of urine": Urea, Creatinine
  54. Urine urobilinogen is tested with: Ehrich's aldehyde test
  55. Cytochrome oxidase contains: Fe & Cu
  56. The most important buffer in extracellular fluid is : SO2, Bicarbonate
  57. The normal pH of blood is : 7.4
  58. The commonest enzyme deficiency is of: Glucose -6-phosphatase
  59. Placenta and Ovary: synthesize and release physiologically significant amount of estradiol
  60. Cholesterol contains: 27 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl group of carbon number 4
  61. Citrate & ATP : inhibit phosphofructokinase
  62. The semi essential amino acids are: Arginine, Histidine
  63. Essential fatty acids are: Arachidonic acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid
  64. Base stalking of DNA is done by: Hyperchromicity
  65. Michaelis- Menten hypothesis states that: enzyme substrate complex formation essential in enzymatic reaction
  66. Degeneracy of the genetic code denotes the existence of: Multiple codons for a single amino acid
  67. Specific dynamic action is maximum in: Protein
  68. Pyridoxine is required for : Heme synthesis
  69. Isotope has same: Atomic number
  70. Banding is : Method of detecting single gene deletion
  71. Besides Liver, Gluconeogenesis occurs in : Kidney
  72. Number of ATPs formed in conversion of glycogen to lactate is: 3
  73. Normal renal threshold for glucose excretion is : 180mg%
  74. Benzoic acid is detoxified by binding with: Glycine
  75. 8 ATPs: are formed in the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinate
  76. Cori cycle or lactic acid cycle involves: blood, liver, muscle
  77. Net ATPs formed in glycolysis are: 
  78. The key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis is : 7 alpha hydroxylase
  79. LDL : form of cholesterol ester is found in plasma most.
  80. 5 A TPs : are formed by one turn of beta oxidation.
  81. The normal daily faecal fat excretion in man is : 5gm
  82. Endogenous triglyceride highest concentration in Plasma is : VLDL
  83. Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis is: HMG CoA Reductase
  84. Non essential amino acid is : not needed in diet
  85. Man, Monkey, Guinea pig: Cannot synthesize vitamin C.
  86. Basic amino acid is : Histidine
  87. Ketone body produced in starvation is : Beta- hydroxybutyrate
  88. The base found in RNA but not in DNA : Uracil
  89. Glycogen phosphorylase requires: Pyridoxine
  90. Messenger RNA attaches to Operator codon for regulating protein synthesis.
  91. The common feature of enzyme cascade system is : Feed back inhibition
  92. "The process in which amino group of the amino acid is transferred to the keto acid and the keto group of the keto acids transferred to the amino acid" is called: Transamination
  93. Alcohol is converted into methanol by : Reduction
  94. The only tissue where NAD and NADP are equally distributed: Liver
  95. NADH is used for : Fatty acid biosynthesis
  96. Glutathione peroxidase contains: Selenium
  97. Most catalytically active enzyme is: Trypsin
  98. The vitamin important for carboxylation is : Biotin
  99. Vitamin which prevents autoxidation : Tocopherol
  100. Vitamin essential for transamination is: B6
  101. The major vitamin deficiency in Wernicke's encephalopathy: B1
  102. Dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia are seen in deficiency of: Niacin
  103. Nicotinic acid and serotonin are formed from: Tryptophan
  104. The most important buffer in RBC : Oxygen Hb + K Hemoglobinate
  105. Hemoglobin is present in : Hydrophobic pockets
  106. Normal daily urinary protein excretion is : Upto 150mg
  107. Sweat chlorides are increased in: Cystic fibrosis
  108. Embryonic hemoglobin is : Alpha2, gama2
  109. Alpha antitrypsin is synthesized in: Lungs
  110. Surfactant is secreted by : pneumocyte-II
  111. Best stimuli for pancreatic secretion rich in electrolytes: Secretin
  112. Cholesterol is transported to extrahepatic tissue mainly through: VLDL
  113. Beta 1 receptor activation causes: Decarboxylation of keto acid
  114. Free fatty acid is transported by : Albumin
  115. HMP Shunt pathway: produces CO2
  116. Atherosclerosis is not found in : Rabbit
  117. Thirst is stimulated by : ADH
  118. Galactolipid: is accumulated in Gaucher's disease
  119. CH2 transfer reaction is mediated by : Folic acid
  120. Activated pantothenic acid is found in : GMP
  121. Glycine: is inhibitory agent in neuron
  122. Chromosomal studies are done in : Metaphase
  123. The amino acid heterocyclic is : Proline
  124. Tertiary structure present in: keratin
  125. Heart at rest utilizes: Fatty acids
  126. The vitamin synthesized in the body is : Vit. A
  127. The vitamin deficiency implicated in metaplasia of respiratory epithelium is : Vit. A
  128. FIGLU is an intermediate product of: Histidine
  129. Dietary fibre is: Non-starch polysaccharide
  130. Dietary fibre reduces atherosclerosis by : Binding to cholesterol
  131. Bence -jones proteins: is not a normal ingredient of human urine.
  132. The mechanism of action of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation involves: Disruption of proton gradient across the inner membrane
  133. The cytochrome involved in mono-oxygenase mediated detoxification of drugs is : Cyt P 450
  134. In Chylomicrons , the main apoprotein is : Apo B-48
  135. Insulin secretion is associated with: Zinc
  136. The site at which 1,25 hydroxylation of vitamin -D takes place in the kidneys is: Proximal convoluted tubules
  137. Allosteric activator of Acetyl CoA carboxylase: Citrate
  138. Entropy is a measure of: Energy that is not available for work
  139. The Fenton reaction leads to free radical generation when: Ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions
  140. To which family of chemical mediators of inflammation, the lipoxins belong: Arachidonic acid metabolites
  141. Beta-oxidation of odd chain fatty acids produces: Propionyl CoA
  142. A person on a fat free carbohydrate rich diet continues to grow obese. The lipoproteins is likely to be elevated in his blood is : VLDL
  143. Dietary cholesterol is carried from intestine to liver by : APO-C
  144. The primary role of chaperones is to help in : Protein folding
  145. RFLP method: is used for reading large chromosomes 50-100 base pairs.
  146. A segment of an eukaryotic gene that is not represented in the mature mRNA, is known as : Intron
  147. Hypervitaminosis -A induces damage to : Lysosome
  148. Telomerase are: RNA dependent DNA polymerase
  149. The purines salvage pathway is for: Hypoxanthine & Adenine
  150. Diphosphoglycerate in red blood cells does not increase on stimulation to: Chronic anemia
  151. Function of Sertoli cells: Aid in spermiogenesis
  152. Enzyme responsible for respiratory burst is: Oxidase
  153. Growing of firefly is due to: ATP
  154. In carboxylation of clotting factors by vitamin K, which AA is carboxylate: Glutamate
  155. A major lipid of mitochondrial membrane is: Cardiolipin
  156. Alpha fetoprotein is genetically and structurally related to : Albumin
  157. In the mucosal cells, triglycerides are formed primarily in the : Golgi apparatus
  158. Biosynthesis of the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase is repressed by : Insulin
  159. Microalbuminuria is defined as protein levels of: 151-200mg/L
  160. Mucin dot test is done to detect: Hyaluronate in synovial fluid
  161. The cofactor required for the activity of sulfite oxidase is : Molybdenum
  162. The estimation on-methyl histidine in urine is used to study: Skeletal muscle mass
  163. The screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus that has the highest sensitivity is : 50gm glucose challenge test
  164. Nephelometry is based on the principle of: Light attenuated in intensity by scattering
  165. Vit. K is required for : Carboxylation
  166. Type -II collagen : is found in hyaline cartilage.
  167. Cation used in PCR is: Magnesium
  168. Poly (A) translates into: Polylysine
  169. Replacing alanine by Tryptophan will increase UV absorbance of protein at 280nm wavelength
  170. Biotin: is responsible for carboxylation reaction
  171. NO is synthesized by : Arginine
  172. Noble prize recently given for the discovery of: RNA1
  173. Splicing is done by : Sn RNA
  174. Hyaluronic acid a mucopolysaccharide is present in : Vitreous humor
  175. In Maple syrup disease, the amino acids Not excreted in urine: Phenylalanine
  176. NARP is related to : Mitochondria
  177. Zinc is required for: Alcohol dehydrogenase
  178. Western blotting is used for : Proteins
  179. Rancid butter (cabbage- like) smell in urine is seen in : Tyrosinemia
  180. Hemoglobin formation requires: Histidine
  181. Somatostatin-.:-acts by decreasing - Camp
  182. Functional plasma enzyme is : Lipoprotein lipase
  183. In familial hypercholesterolemia 2 : LDLR is not properly transported
  184. Most abundant extracellular anion is : Chloride
  185. Milieu interior refers to : ECF
  186. Thyroxine is derived from amino acid: Tyrosine
  187. Alpha oxidation of fatty acid occurs in: Peroxisomes
Analytical Application – used in diagnostic kits
Glucose oxidase and peroxidase (GOD POD)
Cholesterol oxidase
Alkaline phosphatase/horse radish peroxidase
Uric acid
To detect bacterial contamination in foods
In the analytical technique ELISA
Use in Genetic Engineering
Restriction endonucleases
Taq DNA polymerase
Gene transfer, DNA finger printing
Polymerase chain reaction
  1. CK is a dimer composed of 2 sub units. These are B for brain and M for muscle. Because the active form is a dimer.
    There are 3 isoenzymes CK1(BB), CK-2 (MB) CK-3 (mm). CK1 is the fastest moving on electrophoresis, CK-2 intermediate and CK-3 slowest.
  2. Abzyme is an antibody which is also having a catalytic activity. They are antibody enzymes
  3. Cyt P450 is Microsomal ezyme/cytochrome involved in biotransformation of largest number of drugs (50%)

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