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Historical Aspects
1.   J.J. Thompson                --  Discovered electrons
2.   W.K. Roentgen              --  discovered X-rays in 1895.
3.   Henry Becquerel           --   discovered radioactivity in 1896.          
4.   Madam Marie Curie    --   discovered radioactive substances radium, Uranium, etc.
5.   Chadwick                        --  discovered neutron.
6.   Maxwell                          --  discovered electromagnetic waves (invented- by Hertz)    
Characteristic appearances
a. Spondylolysis          - scotty dog wearing a collar app
b. Spondylolisthesis     - Scotty dog with separated neck
c. Scottish terrier sign - in oblique view
  1. Soap bubble appearance in abd x-ray : Meconium ileus
  2. Soap bubble appearance in head CT : Cryptococcal meningitis
  3. Soap bubble calcification in x-ray : Osteoclastoma
  4. Puffed rice appearance on CT-Scan head : neurocysticercosis
  5. Soap bubble cerebral calcification in head CT : Toxoplasmosis (Congenital)

Important Point

  1. Investigation of choice in traumatic paraplegia - MRI
  2. Intra-osseous skeletal tumours are best diagnosed by- MRI
  3. In fibromuscular dysplasia: string of beads appearance on angiography
  4. Trethowan sign: in Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
  5. Sagging Rope sign: Perthes disease
  6. Aneurysmal sign: Ant. Type TB - spine
  7. Trachea lies behind LA so in left atrial enlargement there is widening of tracheal bifurcation angle. Enlargement is best seen in penetrated chest x-ray PA view descending aorta is displaced to the left by LA enlargement (Bedford’s sign) & in LA enlargement esophagus is displaced towards right & posteriorly'
  8. Amt. of air needed to create pneumo peritoneum ---------- 800 ml
  9. Amt. of air needed to produce death in air embolism ---------- 200 ml
  10. Echo cardiography can detect pericardial effusion as little as ---------- 15 ml
  11. X-ray can detect pericardial effusion as little as ---------- 250 ml
  12. Minimum amt. of ascitic fluid required to elicit puddle sign ---------- 50 ml
  13. Lateral view chest X-ray can detect pleural effusion as little as ----------- 50 – 100 ml

Some Important Negative points

  1. On PA view X-ray chest cardiac silhouette is NOT increased in ---------- TOF
  2. NOT a Radiosensitizer substance ----------- Cyclophosphamide
  3. NOT a Radiosensitive tumour ---------- Osteosarcoma
  4. Miliary mottling is NOT seen in ---------- Staph. aureus pneumonia
  5. In chest X-ray PA view Rt heart border is NOT formed by ---------- Ascending aorta, RV
  6. NOT related to development of bladder cancer ---------- TB
  7. Skin turnours, which is NOT radiosensitive ---------- Malignant melanoma
  8. MCV is NOT indicated for      ----------      Suspected renal tumours/mass
  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule is NOT seen in   ----------  Neurofibromatosis/  neurofibroma                                                                                                                                        
  10. Air in biliary tract is NOT seen in   ----------   Sclerosing cholangitis
  11. B/L calcification of lung NOT occur in -----------  Klebsiella pneumonia.

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