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Lung volumes

  1. Tidal volume (TV) = 500 ml
  2. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) = 3300 ml
  3. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) = 1000 ml
  4. Residual volume (RV) = 1200 ml
  5. Total lung capacity (TLC) = 4.2-6 litre [ IRV + TV +ERV + RV ]
  6. Vital capacity = 4.8 L in males, 3.2 in females { IRV + TV +ERV}
  7. Functional residual capacity (FRC) = 2.5 L { ERV + RV}
Level of lesion Effect
Above pons Respiration remains normal
between pons & medulla Which is irregular & gasping
Below medulla Respiration stops
Midpontine + B/L vagotomy slow and deep breathing
  1. Decompression sickness (Caisson sickness, Bends or Diver's palsy) due to N2 (nitrogen) causing narcosis in descending phase and air embolism in ascending phase.
  2. Pulmonary wedge pressure corresponds to left atrial pressure, acute pulmonary edema present at a PCWP of >20mmHg
  3. 02 therapy is not effective in histotoxic hypoxia.
  4. C02 main stimulus for control of alveolar ventilation.
  5. The most common form of hypoxia is hypoxic.
  6. Normal value of Pa02 is 95-98 mmHg
  7. Arterial C02 level is 40mmHg
  8. The volume of lung after quite expiration is ERV
  9. Minute alveolar ventilation is 3.5-4.5 L
  10. FRC (functional residual capacity) comprises of: amount of air remaining in lungs at end of normal expiration
  11. Vital capacity is maximum volume expired after complete inspiration
  12. Choride shift: Bicarbonate diffuses into plasma and same quantity of chloride diffuses into RBC in venous circulation. In place of bicarbonate, chloride moves into RBC from plasma.
  13. Bohr effect: Affinity of oxygen for the Hb decreases with fall in pH.
  14. Haldane effect - reverse of Bohr effect.

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