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Rate Limiting Steps / Key Enzymes Of Important Pathways

  1. In cholesterol synthesis ………………HMG CoA reductase
  2. In Ketone bodies synthesis ……………… HMG CoA synthetase
  3. In FA synthesis (lipogenesis) ……………… Acetyl CoA carboxylase
  4. In Bile acid synthesis ………………7 - alpha hydroxylase
  5. Gluconeogenesis………………Pyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase    Glycogenesis………………Glycogen synthetase (dephosphorylated form)
  6. Glycolysis………………Phosphofructokinase
  7. Catecholamines synthesis………………Tyrosine hydroxylase
  8. Glycogenolysis………………Phosphorylase (phosphorylated form)
  9. Krebs/ TCA cycle………………Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  10. Uric acid synthesis………………Xanthine oxidase

Some Important Negative Points

  1. Acetoacetic acid (KB) & fatty acids - are NOT substrate for Glucose synthesis
  2. Sedoheptulose PO 4 - is NOT a Product of pentose pathway
  3. Phosphate - is NOT a component of Ganglioside
  4. HMG CoA is NOT involved in - Isoleucine metabolism
  5. Phospho enol pyruvate - is NOT Directly produced from pyruvate
  6. Hydrogen bond - is NOT -present in primary structure
  7. Covalent bond - is NOT present in Antigen - antibody complex
  8. Pyridoxal phosphate - is NOT Required for hydroxylation of proline in collagen synthesis
  9. Tyrosine - is NOT an essential aa (but it becomes essential in PKU).
  10. Glutamate is NOT a precursor of – Histidine
  11. Reactions NOT occur in glycolysis – Hydration
  12. Biotin is NOT required as a coenzyme in - Pyruvate dehydrogenase (It requires thiamine)
  13. Sphingomyelin does NOT contains – Lecithin
  14. Ligase chain reaction is NOT useful for - detection of mutation
  15. Barbiturates inhibit NAD linked dehydrogenases by blocking the transfer from FeS to Q
  16. Complex IV is Cytochrome-C oxidase and contains Cyt a-Cyt b and Cyt c i.e. complex III.

End products of

a. Purine catabolism

Uric acid

b. Pyrimidine catabolism

β-Alannine & β-Amino isobutyric acid + NH 3

c. FA Oxidation

Acetyl CoA (propionyl CoA with odd chain FA)

d. Glycolysis

Pyruvate

e. Nucleic acid on hydrolysis yields

Base + Sugar

f. i.e DNA on complete hydrolysis

Base + Sugar (A, G, C, T + Deoxy ribose)

g. RNA on complete hydrolysis

(A, G, C, U + D- ribose)





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