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Dislocations With Eponyms

  1. Luxatio Erecta: Subglenoid (=inferior) subluxation of humeral head.
  2. Divergent: elbow dislocation where ulna and radius dislocate in opposite directions.
  3. Lunate: wrist injury where lunate bone comes out, to lie in front of other carpal bones
  4. Perilunate: wrist injury where the lunate remains in its place, and the other carpal bones dislocate around it dorsally
  5. Spondylolisthesis: movement of one vertebra over another (L5 over S1)
  6. Otto pelvis: gradual shift of the acetabulum into the pelvis (e.g.. in Osteomalacia) “B/L protrusioacetabuli”
  7. Chopart’s: dislocation through inter-tarsal joints
  8. Lisfranc: dislocation through’ tarsometatarsal joints
  9. Sprain: A break in the continuity of a ligament
  10. Strain: A break in muscle fibres

Hip dislocations

  1. Posterior: shortening, FADIR deformity.
  2. Anterior: lengthening, FABER deformity.
  3. Central: shortening, PR-femoral head is palpable.

Signs and Tests

  1. Adson’s test: For thoracic outlet syndrome
  2. Allen’s test: for testing patency of radial and ulnar arteries
  3. Alli’s test/Galeazzi test for Limb Length Discrepancy” for DDH
  4. Anvil test: for testing tenderness of the spine
  5. Ape thumb: for median nerve injury
  6. Apley’s grinding test: for meniscus injury
  7. Apprehension test: for recurrent dislocation e.g. shoulder and patella.
  8. Barlow’s test: & Ortolani’s test for DDH.
  9. Callaway’s’ test: for anterior dislocation shoulder
  10. Coin test: for dorso-lumbar tuberculosis of spine
  11. Cozen’s test: for tennis elbow
  12. Drawer test: for ACL and PCL injuries
  13. Anterior: for ACL injury
  14. Posterior: for PCL injury
  15. Finkelstein’s test: for de Quervain’s tenosynovitis
  16. Froment’s sign: for ulnar nerve injury
  17. Gaenslen’s test: for, SI joint involvement
  18. Galleazzi sign: for CDH
  19. Gower’s sign: for muscular dystrophy
  20. Hamilton-ruler test: for anterior dislocation of the shoulder
  21. Kanavel’s sign: for infection in ulnar bursa
  22. Lasègue’s test: for disc prolapse
  23. Lachman test: for ACL injury
  24. Ludloff’s sign: for avulsion of lesser trochanter
  25. McMurray’s test: for meniscus injury
  26. Ober’s test: for ilio-tibial band contracture (e.g., in polio)
  27. O’Donoghue triad: triad of MCL, ACL & medial meniscus injuries occurring together
  28. Ortolani’s test: for CDH
  29. Pivot-shift test: for ACL injury / Anterolateral corner of knee
  30. Policeman tip: for Erb’s palsy
  31. Sulcus sign: for inferior dislocation of the shoulder / multidirectional instability.
  32. Thomas’ test: for hip flexion deformity
  33. Trendelenburg test: for unstable hip due to any reason (e.g. CDH)
  34. Tinel’s sign: for detecting improving nerve injury
  35. Volkmann’s sign: for ischemic contracture of forearm muscles
  36. Runner’s knee: patellar tendonitis

Special Test

Indications of (+) result

Anterior apprehension test

Look of apprehension = pt. prone to anterior dislocation of shoulder

Posterior apprehension test

Look of apprehension = pt. prone to posterior dislocation of shoulder

Ludington's test

Absence of movement in the biceps tendon = rupture of long head of biceps brachii

Speed's test

Pain or tenderness in bicipital groove region = bicipital tendonitis

Yeargason's test

Pain or tenderness in bicipital groove = bicipital tendonitis

Drop arm test

In ability to slowly lower arm or severe pain = tear in rotator cuff

Hawkins-Kennedy test

pain = impingement involving supraspinatus tendon

Neer test

pain = impingement involving supraspinatus tendon

Supraspinatus test

weakness or pain = tear of supraspinatus, impingement, or suprascapular nerve involvement

Adson maneuver

absent or diminished radial pulse = TOS

Allen test

absent or diminished radial pulse = TOS

Costoclavicular syndrome test

absent or diminished radial pulse = TOS caused by compression of subclavian artery between the first rib and the clavicle

Roos test

Inability to maintain test position, weakness of the arms, sensory loss or ischemic pain = TOS

Glenoid labrum tear test

Clunk or grinding sound = glenoid labrum tear.

Varus stress test (elbow)

Increased laxity in the lateral collateral ligament Q (BHU 2011) when compared to the contralateral side, apprehension or pain = lateral collateral ligament sprain Q

Valgus stress test (elbow)

Increased laxity in the medial collateral ligament Q when compared to the contralateral side, apprehension or pain = medial collateral ligament

Cozen's test

Pain in the lateral epicondyle region or muscle weakness = lateral epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis test

Pain in the lateral epicondyle region or muscle weakness = lateral epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis test

Pain in the medial epicondyle region = medial epicondylitis

Mill's test

Pain in the lateral epicondyle region = lateral epicondylitis

Tinel's sign (ulnar)

Paresthesia in ulnar nerve distribution of forearm, hand, and fingers = ulnar nerve compression or compromise

Ulnar collateral ligament test

excessive valgus movement in thumb = tear of ulnar collateral and accessory collateral ligaments (gamekeeper's/skier's thumb)

Allen test

delayed or absent flushing of the radial or ulnar half of the hand = occlusion of radial or ulnar artery

Capillary refill test

delayed or muted response of color returning to nails (greater than 2 sec) = arterial insufficiency

Bunnel-Littler test

1. PIP does not flex with MCP jt ext = tight intrinsic m. or capsular tightness.
2. PIP fully flexes with MCP in slight flex = tight intrinsic m. without capsular tightness

Tight retinacular test

1. unable to flex DIP = retinacular lig or capsule tight
2. able to flex DIP with PIP in flexion = retinacular lig tight, capsule normal

Froment's sign

pt. flexing distal phalanx of thumb = adductor pollicis paralysis/ulnar n. compromise or paralysis.

Phalen's test

tingling in thumb, index finger, middle finger and lateral half of ring finger Q = carpal tunnel syndrome

Tinel's sign (median)

tingling in median n. distribution = carpal tunnel syndrome

Finkelstein test

pain over abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis = tenosynovitis in thumb (deQuervain's)

Grind test (hand)

pain in thumb over CMC = DJD of CMC

Murphy sign

pts. third metacrapal remains level with the second and fourth = dislocated lunate

Ely's test

spontaneous hip flexion occuring simultaneously with knee flexion = rectus femoris contracture

Ober's test

inability of test lef to adduct and touch table = TFL contracture

Piriformis test

pain or tightness = piriformis tightness or compression on the sciatic n. caused by piriformis

Thomas test

the straight leg rises from the table = hip flexion contracture

Tripod sign

tightness of hamstring or extension of the trunk in order to limit the effect of the tight hamstring = tight hamstring

90-90 Straight leg raise

knee remaining in 20 deg or more of flexion = tight hamstring

Barlow's test

click or clunk = hip dislocation being reduced (pediatric)

Ortolani's test

click or clunk = hip dislocation being reduced (pediatric)

Craig's test

tests for deg of anteversion @ hip. normal for adult= 8-15

Patrick's test (FABER)

failure of test leg to abduct below the level of the opposite leg = iliopsoas, sacroiliac, or hip jt. abnormalities

Quadrant scouring test

grinding-caching or crepitation in the hip = arthritis, avascular necrosis, or an osteochondral defect in hip

Trendelenburg test

a drop of the pelvis on the unsupported side = weakness of gluteus medius on supported side

Anterior drawer test (knee)

excessive anterior translation of tibia = ACL injury. less reliable than Lachman

Lachman test

excessive anterior translation of tibia = ACL injury

Lateral pivot shift test

a palpable shift or clunk occuring between 20-40 degrees of flexion = anterolateral rotary instability

Posterior drawer test

excessive posterior translation of the tibia = PCL injury

Posterior sag sign

tibia sags back on femur = PCL injury

Slocum test

movement of tibia occuring primarily on lateral side = anterolateral instability

Valgus stress test (knee)

excessive valgus movement = MCL sprain

Varus stress test (knee)

excessive varus movement = LCL sprain

Apley's compression test

pain or clicking = meniscal lesion

Bounce home test

incomplete extension or rubbery end-feel = meniscal lesion

McMurray test

click or pronounced crepitation over joint line = posterior meniscal lesion

Brush test

a wave of fluid just below the medial distal border of the patella = effusion in the knee

Patellar tap test

patella appears to be floating = joint effusion

Clarke's sign

failure to complete the contraction without pain = patellofemoral dysfunction

Hughston's plica test

popping sound over the medial plica while knee is passively flexed and extended = plica dysfunction

Noble compression test

pain overt the lateral femoral epicondyle at approximately 30 deg of knee flexion = ITB friction syndrome

Patellar apprehension test

a look of apprehension or an attempt to contract the quadriceps = patella subluxation/dislocation

Anterior drawer test (ankle)

excessive anterior translation of talus = anterior talofibular ligament sprain

Talar tilt test

excessive adduction = calcaneofibular ligament sprain

Homan's sign

pain in the calf = DVT

Thompson test

absence of plantar flexion = ruptured Achilles tendon

Tibial torsion test

tests for degree of tibial torsion. Normal lateral rotation of the tibia is 12-18 degrees in adult.

True leg length discrepancy test

a bilateral variation of greater than 1 cm = true leg length discrepancy

Foraminal compression test

pain radiating into arm toward flexed side = nerve root compression

Vertebral artery test

dizziness, nystagmus, slurred speech, loss of consciousness = compression of vertebral artery

Sacroiliac joint stress test Q

unilateral pain in the sacroiliac joint or gluteal area = sacroiliac joint dysfunction

Standing flexion test

one PSIS moving further in a cranial direction = articular restriction of SI jt

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