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Neuro transmeter level

  1. DA levels (post synaptic level) : Schizophrenia
  2. Ach : Dementia
  3. 5-HT & NA : Mania, Anxiety
  4. 5-HT & NA : OCD, eating, sleeping, depression
  5. GABA : Epilepsy, Anxiety and sleep disorders
  6. Glycine : Mental retardation seizures spastic paraplegia. (Glycine is inhibitory NT in spinal cord and excitatory in brain)


  1. Concrete thinking stage 2-7 years.
  2. Abstract/conceptual thinking stage 7-11 years.
  3. Down's syndrome is most common chromosomal cause and most common cause of severe mental retardation.
  4. M/c mental disorder in children is Neurosis
  5. M/c form of pica is Geophagia.
  6. Termites are mentally gifted children with IQ > 150 (Mens comprises people with 1Q > 140)
  7. Kanner's autistic triad: - Autistic' aloofness + Speech / language disorder+ Obsessive desire for sameness.
  8. Fear of death: M/c at age of 5 years.
  9. Defiance, oppositionalism and temper tantrums are often used by children 18mth-3yrs of age.
  10. Most children have obtained bladder control during the day & night by age 5 year.
  11. Children identify themselves as boys or girls by about 18 month of age (establish a gender identity)
    a. Between 18-30 month children establish gender stability.
    b. By 30 month gender constancy & it is resistant to change.
  12. 0-2 yrs ---Adualism to dualism
    a. 2-7 yrs--- Animalism
    b. 7-16 yrs--- Realism 


a.      Isolation of affect

: In obsession

b.      Reaction formation

: In OCD

c.      Undoing

: in compulsion

d.      Displacement, inhibition

: in phobia

e.      Repression

: in Anxiety disorder, phobi


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