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Nutrition and macronutrient disorders

By WHO: Energy requirement at

 

0-6 months → 118 kcal/1g/day

 

7-12 months → 108 kcal/1g/day

 

Infants (up to 1 yr): Requires, on an average 103 kcal/kg/day energy.

 

At 1 yr → 1000 kcal

 

3 yrs → 1300

 

2 yrs → 1200

 

10 yrs → 2000


Proteins
: Types

 

- Non-essential amino acids (AA).

 

- Essential amino acids

  1. Essential amino acids are (MeTT VIL PHLY): Methionine, threonine, Tryptophan, Valine, Isoleucine, leucine, Phenylalanine and Iysine.
  2. Histidine and Arginine are essential AA during infancy (as rate of synthesis of these AA is inadequate). 

Requirement of protein: Adults 1 gm/kg.
 

1. 1-3 months → 2.3 gm/kg 1-2 yrs →1.8 gm/kg
2. 3-6 months → 1.85 gm/kg 2-4 yrs → 1.6 gm/kg
3. 6-9 months → 1.65 gm/kg 4-6 yrs →1.5 gm/kg
4. 9-12 months → 1.5 gm/kg 6-12 yrs → 1.4 gm/kg

               

* Egg protein is considered a reference protein.


Lipids: Saturated FA are from animal source except coconut oil.

  • Unsaturated FA (USFA) are mainly of vegetable source.

 

Essential fatty acids: There are two families of Poly USFA.

  1. Omega 6 FA: Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid.                             
  2. Omega 3 FA: Linolenic acid, Eicosopentonic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaehonic acid (DHA).

* A minimum 3% of energy should be derived for linoleic acid 0.3% from linolenic acid.


Minerals: Macro minerals– Those with requirement > 100mg/day e.g.–Na, K, Cl, Ca, PO4, Mg, Se etc.


Breast Feeding

  1. Should be initiated as soon possible with in ½ hr in normal delivery; and 2 hrs in caesarian section.
  2. Average quantity of milk production is 500-800 ml/day.
  3. Exclusive breast feeding is for initial 6 months.




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