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  1. The generation time of M. leprae is 12-14 days. Portal of entry is through skin and respiratory tract.
  2. Mode of transmission is through contact (direct or indirect), inhalation, insect vectors (culex mosquito and bedbugs), breast milk.
  3. Conjugal leprosy is seen in 5% cases and transplacental transmission is extremely rare.
  4. Host factors include, immunological status(low CMI), age, pregnancy, nutritional status, BCG vaccination, genetic factors (racial differences, HLA association) and social factors (poor personal hygiene, overcrowding ,poor sanitation etc.).
  5. Environmental factors suggest that it is present in all climatic conditions although more preponderant in hot humid conditions.

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