- The generation time of M. leprae is 12-14 days. Portal of entry is through skin and respiratory tract.
- Mode of transmission is through contact (direct or indirect), inhalation, insect vectors (culex mosquito and bedbugs), breast milk.
- Conjugal leprosy is seen in 5% cases and transplacental transmission is extremely rare.
- Host factors include, immunological status(low CMI), age, pregnancy, nutritional status, BCG vaccination, genetic factors (racial differences, HLA association) and social factors (poor personal hygiene, overcrowding ,poor sanitation etc.).
- Environmental factors suggest that it is present in all climatic conditions although more preponderant in hot humid conditions.
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