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Substrate Utilized for Energy Production

Ketone BodiesQ
Fatty AcidQ
Fatty Acid
Ketone Bodies

Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid


Fatty Acid

Ketone Bodies/Fatty AcidsQ

Rate Limiting Enzymes of Different Pathways

Important Points to Remember

  1. Major lipoprotein of blood is LDL (β - lipoprotein)
  2. FFA in plasma are transported as albumin- FFA complex
  3. Apo B-100 is major lipoprotein of VCDL, IDC & LDL.
  4. Apolipoprotein B has highest predictive value in morbidity of coronary heart disease.α  & omega oxidation are alternative pathways for oxidation of FA in which no initial activation is necessary & mono oxygenase are required
  5. Peroxisomal oxidation is oxidation of very long chain FA.  Zellweger (hepatorenal) syndrome is the defect.
  6. Acetoacetate is most important ketone bodies as it can form acetone & β-OH Butyric acid both.
  7. β-OH butyrate is predominant KB of blood / urine
  8. Acetyl CoA is starting material for K.B. synthesis & HMG CoA synthase is rate limiting step for ketogenesis.
  9. Active Fatty acis is Acyl CoA; while Active Acetate is → Acetyl CoA
  10. Acetyl CoA is the starting material for the synthesis of FA.
  11. Lipotropic Factors (prevents fatty liver): Inositol, Betaine , Methionine, Choline, Androgens, GH, Casein, lecithin
  12. In resting muscles preferred fuel is fatty acids
  13. Fatty acids are major fuel source for heart, renal cortex, adipose tissues
  14. Retina completely depends upon glucose as a fuel source
  15. Acetyl CoA serves as link between glycolysis and TCA cycle
  16. Fumarate serves as a link between urea cycle and citric acid cycle
  17. Acetyl CoA is starting material for FA synthesis
  18. UDP-glucose is the key substrate for glycogen synthesis.
  19. TCA cycle does not occur in RBC because there is no mitochondria
  20. In TCA - Only step where substrate level phosphorylation occur - succinate thiokinase (which converts Succinyl CoA  to Succinate

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