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Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  1. Upper endoscopy, also referred to as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is performed by passing a flexible endoscope through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach, bulb, and second duodenum.
  2. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is similar to colonoscopy but visualizes only the rectum and a variable portion of the left colon, typically to 60 cm from the anal verge.
  3. EUS (Endoscopic ultrasound) provides the most accurate preoperative local staging of esophageal, pancreatic, and rectal malignancies.
  4. Colonoscopy has a higher diagnostic yield than radionuclide bleeding scans or angiography in lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
  5. In a patient with any cardiac condition, prophylaxis of infective endocarditis is not required before any endoscopic procedure. (Ref. Hari. 18th ed., Pg - 2414)
Extra Edge Dieulafoy's Lesion: (Ref. Hari. 18th ed., Pg- 2415)
This lesion, also called persistent caliber artery, is a large-caliber arteriole that runs immediately beneath the gastrointestinal mucosa and bleeds through a pinpoint mucosal erosion. Dieulafoy's lesion is seen most commonly on the lesser curvature of the proximal stomach, causes impressive arterial hemorrhage. Its treatment is thermal coagulation.

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