- Upper endoscopy, also referred to as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is performed by passing a flexible endoscope through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach, bulb, and second duodenum.
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy is similar to colonoscopy but visualizes only the rectum and a variable portion of the left colon, typically to 60 cm from the anal verge.
- EUS (Endoscopic ultrasound) provides the most accurate preoperative local staging of esophageal, pancreatic, and rectal malignancies.
- Colonoscopy has a higher diagnostic yield than radionuclide bleeding scans or angiography in lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
- In a patient with any cardiac condition, prophylaxis of infective endocarditis is not required before any endoscopic procedure. (Ref. Hari. 18th ed., Pg - 2414)
Extra Edge Dieulafoy's Lesion: (Ref. Hari. 18th ed., Pg- 2415)
This lesion, also called persistent caliber artery, is a large-caliber arteriole that runs immediately beneath the gastrointestinal mucosa and bleeds through a pinpoint mucosal erosion. Dieulafoy's lesion is seen most commonly on the lesser curvature of the proximal stomach, causes impressive arterial hemorrhage. Its treatment is thermal coagulation.