Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

 

Leukemias

The leukemias are the most common malignant neoplasms in childhood, accounting for about 41% of all malignancies that occur in children <15 yr of age. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for about 77% of cases of childhood leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) for about 11%, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) for 2–3%, and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JCML) for 1–2%.

 

Table : Factors Predisposing to Childhood Leukemia:

 

Genetic contitions

Environmental factors

Down syndrome

Fanconi syndrome

Bloom syndrome

Diamond Black fan anemia

Schwachman syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Neurofibromatosis type 1

Ataxia telangiectasia

Severe combined immune deficiency

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Li- Fraumeni syndrome

Ionizing radiation

Drugs

Alkylating agents

Nitrosourea

Epipodophyllotoxin

Benzene exposure

Advance maternal age

 

       

Table : Common Chromosomal abnormalities in the Acute Leukemias of childhood Q

 

Disease

Subtype

Chromosomal Abnromality

Influence On Prognosis

ALL

Pre-B

Trisomy 4 and 10 T (12;21)

Favorable

 

Pre-B

T(4;11)

Unfavorable

 

Pre-B

T(9;22)

Unfavorable

 

B-cell

T(8;14)

None

 

General

Hyperdiploidy

Favorable

 

General

Hypodiploidy

Unfavorable

AML

M1*

T(8;21)

Favorable

 

M4*

Inv(16)

Favorable

 

M3*

T (5;17)

Favorable

 

General

Del(7)

Unfavorable

 

Infant

T(4;11)

Unfavorable





Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name