Man is intermediate host in all except:
a. H. nana life cycle is completed in a single host, hence there is no concept of definitive and intermediate host.
b. Humans become infected with H nana when they ingest infective eggs, most commonly by direct fecal-oral exposure.
c. The eggs pass into the ileum and hatch into oncospheres (the larval form), which penetrate the lamina propria of the villus.
d. Within 3-4 days, the larvae mature into the preadult cysticercoid, which then enters the gut lumen to attach to the mucosae of the villus.
e. Mature adults, measuring 35-45 mm in length and comprising 150-200 proglottids, result within about 3 weeks.
f. Self-mating between adjacent proglottids generates hundreds of eggs, some of which penetrate intestinal villa and some of which pass into the feces
g. The vast majority of infections produce no symptoms. Symptom frequency seems to correlate with increasing worm burden.
h. Among children with clinical infection, symptoms include restlessness, irritability, diarrhea, abdominal pain, restless sleep, anal pruritus, and nasal pruritus.