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Memory impairment occurs in embolism of posterior cerebral artery because of damage to: (AIIMS Nov 10)

A Hippocampus gyrus
B Superior temporal gyrus

C Prefrontal gyrus
D Angular gyrus

Ans. A

Hippocampus gyrus

Features of Temporal lobe lesions

1. Unilateral Temporal Lesion

a. Contralateral homonymous upper quadrantanopia (Sector Anopsia)

b. Complex hallucinations (Smell, sound, vision, memory)

2. Dominant Hemisphere

a. Receptive aphasia

- Wernicke's Aphasia

- Anomic Aphasia

b. Dyslexia

c. Impaired verbal memory

d. Word Agnosia, Word deafness

3. Non Dominant Hemisphere

a. Impaired non-verbal memory

b. Impaired musical skills

c. Prosopagnosia

4. Bitemporal lesions (Additional Features)

a. Deafness

b. Apathy (Affective in difference)

c. Impaired learning and Memory

d. Amnesia, Korsakoff syndrome, Kluver Bucy syndrome

Extra Edge: Prosopagnosia is a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact.

Extra Edge:

Bilateral temporal lobe involvement - Kluver Bucy syndrome

Features: Apathy with excess sexual drive, hyperphagia, hyper-orality, visual agnosia, docility, hyper-metamorphopsia, antegrade amnesia

Lesions of medial temporal lobe

Unilateral lesion affecting dominant lobe (left)

Unilateral lesion affecting Non dominant lobe (right)

Bilateral lobe involvement

Verbal memory loss (Auditory Amnesia)

Non Verbal memory loss (e.g Visual Amnesia)

Antegrade Amnesia

Loss of new learning an recent memory

Extra Edge:
Wernicke's Aphasia, contralateral superior homonymous quadrantopia, auditory & visual hallucinations are all features of temporal lobe lesions.

Extra Edge: Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal gyrus involvement may cause an acute disturbance in memory particularly if it occurs in the dominant hemisphere.

Extra Edge about visual pathway.

a. Source

b. Path

c. Information

d. Damage

1. Fibers from the inferior retina (also called "Meyer's loop"

1. Pass through the temporal lobe

1. Carry information from the superior part of the visual field

1. A lesion in the temporal lobe that results in damage to Meyer's loop causes a characteristic loss of vision in a superior quadrant (quadrantanopia.)

2. Fibers from the superior retina (also called "Baum's loop")

2. Travel straight back through the parietal lobe

2. Carry information from the inferior part of the visual field

2. A lesion in the parietal lobe that results in damage to Baum’s loop causes a characteristic loss of vision in a inferior quadrant (quadrantanopia.)

Neurology Flashcard List

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