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Persistent mood (affective) disorders


Cyclothymia
  1. A persistent instability of mood, involving numerous periods of mild depression and mild elation.
  2. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms fluctuates with hypomanic symptoms usually within a day (usually not related life events)
  3. This instability usually develops early in adult life and pursues a chronic course, although at times the mood may be normal and stable for months at a time.
  4. The mood swings are usually perceived by the individuals as being unrelated to life events.
  5. Although present, is less prominent than cyclical changes in activity, Self-confidence, sociability, or appetitive behavior.
  6. If required, age of onset may be specified as early (in late teenage or the twenties) or late.
Diagnostic guidelines
  1. The essential features is a persistent instability of mood, involving numerous periods of mild depression and mild elation.
  2. None of which has been sufficiently severe or prolonged to fulfill the criteria for bipolar affective disorder or recurrent depressive disorder
  3. It Includes: Affective personality disorder , Cycloid personality, Cyclothymic personality 33% of cyclothymia goes for mania.
Dysthymia
  1. It is defined as sub-syndromal depressive symptoms for 2 years.
  2. A chronic sub syndromal depression of mood which does not currently fulfill the criteria for recurrent depressive disorder, mild or moderate severity, in terms of either severity or duration or individual episodes.
  3. The balance between individuals’ phases of mild depression and intervening periods of comparative normality as well, but most of the time (often for months at a time) they feel tired and depressed ; everything is an effort and nothing is enjoyed.
  4. They brood and complain, sleep badly and feel inadequate, but are usually able to cope with basic demands of everyday life.
  5. Dysthymia therefore has much in common with the concept of depressive neurosis, neurotic depression.
  6. If required. Age of onset may be specified as early (in late teenage or the twenties)
Diagnostic guidelines
  1. The essential features are a very long standing sub syndromal depression of mood, which is never or only very rarely severe enough to fulfill the criteria for recurrent depressive disorder , mild indefinitely.
  2. When the onset is later in life, the disorder is often the aftermath of a depressive episode and associated with bereavement or other obvious stress.
  3. Also earlier called as Depressive personality Disorder (1940) and Neurotic depression (1960).
  4. In 1995, it is labelled as Type “d” personailty in medicine and have poor prognosis for recurrence of CAD.
Double Depression:
It is Major depression disorder on dysthymia, or Major depression on Neurotic depression or Major depression on Depressive Personality disorder.




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