Most common cause of shock in surgical pati-ents is
|B||Compressed cardiogenic shock|
Hemorrhagic or Hypovolemic Shock
The clinical and physiologic response to hemorrhage has been classified according to the magnitude of volume loss.
a. Loss of up to 15% of the circulating volume (700 to 750 mL for a 70-kg patient) may produce little in terms of obvious symptoms, while
b. Loss of up to 30% of the circulating volume (1.5 L) may result in mild tachycardia, tachypnea, and anxiety.
c. Hypotension, marked tachycardia [i.e., pulse >110 to 120 beats per minute (bpm)], and confusion may not be evident until more than 30% of the blood volume has been lost;
d. Loss of 40% of circulating volume (2 L) is immediately life threatening, and generally requires operative control of bleeding.