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Paediatric

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Neurology

Question
60 out of 92
 

Most common cause of meningoencephalitis in children is: (AIIMS Nov 2014)



A Enteroviruses
B Arboviruses

C Herpes virus
D Cytomegalovirus

Ans. A

Enteroviruses

1. Enteroviruses cause more than 80% of all cases of meningoencephalitis. Enteroviruses are small RNA-containing viruses; more than 80 serotypes have been identified.

2. The severity of disease ranges from mild, self-limited illness with primarily meningeal involvement to severe encephalitis with death or significant sequelae.

3. Arboviruses are arthropod-borne agents, responsible for some cases of meningoencephalitis during summer months.

4. Several members of the herpes family of viruses can cause meningoencephalitis. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important cause of severe, sporadic encephalitis in children and adults. Brain involvement usually is focal; progression to coma and death occurs in 70% of cases without antiviral therapy.

5. Severe encephalitis with diffuse brain involvement is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in neonates who usually contract the virus from their mothers at delivery.

6. A mild transient form of meningoencephalitis may accompany genital herpes infection in sexually active adolescents; most of these infections are caused by HSV-2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may cause CNS infection in close temporal relationship with chickenpox.

The most common manifestation of CNS involvement is cerebellar ataxia, and the most severe is acute encephalitis.

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