Thyroid & Adrenal
Most common salivary gland tumour in children is
a. Hemangiomas are tumors identified by rapid endothelial cell proliferation in early infancy, followed by involution over time; all other abnormalities are malformations resulting from anomalous development of vascular plexuses.
b. The malformations have a normal endothelial cell growth cycle that affects the veins, the capillaries, or the lymphatics, and they do not involute.
c. Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within the first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to near complete resolution.
d. Hemangiomas exhibit both a proliferating phase and an involuting phase, whereas vascular malformations are more stable and fail to regress
e. Hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy, occurring in as many as 2.6% of neonates and 12% of children aged 1 year.
f. Up to 30% of preterm infants with low birth weight (1000 g) may have hemangiomas.
g. Fifty percent of venous malformations occur in the head and the neck.
h. In the oral cavity, the bones and the muscles are affected as well as the mucosa and the skin.
i. The incidence of intraosseous hemangiomas varies from 0.5-1.0% of all intraosseous neoplasms
j. The bones most frequently affected are the vertebral column and the calvaria.
k. The most commonly affected facial bones are the mandible, the maxilla, and the nasal bones.
l. Intraosseous lesions affect the mandible more often than the maxilla, with a ratio of 2:1 reported in one study.
m. Capillary hemangiomas are usually not present at birth but are antedated by a pale, well-demarcated, flat area, most visible with agitation.